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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white.
Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate- dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0.
Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present.
Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many.
Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units.
Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: n temperate, n tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in CA, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
1. Fl bilateral or biradial; petals 4, 1 or both outer spurred or pouched at base (Fumarioideae)
2. Fl biradial; outer 2 petals alike, both pouched at base
3. Plant without leafy stems ..... DICENTRA
3' Plant with leafy stems ..... EHRENDORFERIA
2' Fl bilateral; outer 2 petals not alike, upper spurred at base
4. Fr a capsule, generally linear to oblong, several- to many-seeded ..... CORYDALIS
4' Fr ± a nut, ± round, 1-seeded ..... FUMARIA
1' Fl radial; petals >= 4, not spurred or pouched at base (Papaveroideae)
5. Subshrub to small tree
6. Petals 4(6), yellow, 2–3 cm; leaf entire or minutely toothed ..... DENDROMECON
6' Petals 6, white, 4–10 cm; leaf deeply lobed ..... ROMNEYA
5' Annual, biennial, perennial herb, occasionally woody at base
7. Lvs entire to minutely toothed; petals generally 6
8. Plant generally glabrous; stamens 4–15
9. Basal leaves sessile, linear, fleshy; petals persistent; capsule ovoid, 1.5–2.5 mm ..... CANBYA
9' Basal leaves petioled, spoon-shaped, not fleshy; petals deciduous; capsule linear, to 50 mm ..... MECONELLA
8' Plant long-hairy; stamens > 12
10. Stigmas 3; fruit ovoid, opening by 3 valves, not breaking transversely into units ..... HESPEROMECON
10' Stigmas >= 6; fruit ovoid to widely linear, breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units ..... PLATYSTEMON
7' Lvs toothed to dissected; petals 4, 6, or more
11. Plant spiny; leaves generally cauline ..... ARGEMONE
11' Plant unarmed; leaves basal, cauline, or both
12. Hairs generally ± 5–15 mm, wavy; leaves generally basal — ne DMoj ..... ARCTOMECON
12' Hairs 0 or to 3 mm, straight; leaves basal, cauline, or both
13. Ovary, fruit < 3 × longer than wide; carpels > 2; fruit opening by pores ..... PAPAVER
13' Ovary generally > 3 × (fruit > 4 ×) longer than wide; carpels 2; fruit splitting into 2 valves
14. Lf dissected into ± linear segments; sepals 2, fused into conical cap; receptacle cup-shaped around ovary base; stigma lobes 4–8, linear ..... ESCHSCHOLZIA
14' Lf deeply pinnate-lobed; sepals 2, free; receptacle not cup-shaped, not around ovary base; stigma lobes 2, not linear ..... [GLAUCIUM]
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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