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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Gary L. Hannan & Curtis Clark, except as noted

Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Papaveraceae

1. Flower bilateral or biradial; petals 4, 1 or both outer spurred or pouched at base (Fumarioideae)

2. Flower biradial; outer 2 petals alike, both pouched at base

3. Plant without leafy stems ..... DICENTRA

3' Plant with leafy stems ..... EHRENDORFERIA

2' Flower bilateral; outer 2 petals not alike, upper spurred at base

4. Fruit a capsule, generally linear to oblong, several- to many-seeded ..... CORYDALIS

4' Fruit ± a nut, ± round, 1-seeded ..... FUMARIA

1' Flower radial; petals >= 4, not spurred or pouched at base (Papaveroideae)

5. Subshrub to small tree

6. Petals 4(6), yellow, 2–3 cm; leaf entire or minutely toothed ..... DENDROMECON

6' Petals 6, white, 4–10 cm; leaf deeply lobed ..... ROMNEYA

5' Annual, biennial, perennial herb, occasionally woody at base

7. Leaves entire to minutely toothed; petals generally 6

8. Plant generally glabrous; stamens 4–15

9. Basal leaves sessile, linear, fleshy; petals persistent; capsule ovoid, 1.5–2.5 mm ..... CANBYA

9' Basal leaves petioled, spoon-shaped, not fleshy; petals deciduous; capsule linear, to 50 mm ..... MECONELLA

8' Plant long-hairy; stamens > 12

10. Stigmas 3; fruit ovoid, opening by 3 valves, not breaking transversely into units ..... HESPEROMECON

10' Stigmas >= 6; fruit ovoid to widely linear, breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units ..... PLATYSTEMON

7' Leaves toothed to dissected; petals 4, 6, or more

11. Plant spiny; leaves generally cauline ..... ARGEMONE

11' Plant unarmed; leaves basal, cauline, or both

12. Hairs generally ± 5–15 mm, wavy; leaves generally basal — ne Mojave Desert ..... ARCTOMECON

12' Hairs 0 or to 3 mm, straight; leaves basal, cauline, or both

13. Ovary, fruit < 3 × longer than wide; carpels > 2; fruit opening by pores ..... PAPAVER

13' Ovary generally > 3 × (fruit > 4 ×) longer than wide; carpels 2; fruit splitting into 2 valves

14. Leaf dissected into ± linear segments; sepals 2, fused into conical cap; receptacle cup-shaped around ovary base; stigma lobes 4–8, linear ..... ESCHSCHOLZIA

14' Leaf deeply pinnate-lobed; sepals 2, free; receptacle not cup-shaped, not around ovary base; stigma lobes 2, not linear ..... [GLAUCIUM]


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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