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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not.
Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile.
Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted.
Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 ( lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip.
Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
1. Functional stamens 2, staminodes 1 ..... CYPRIPEDIUM
1' Functional stamens 1, staminodes 0
2. Lvs 0 at flower
3. Fl spurred, without mentum ..... PIPERIA (2)
3' Fl not spurred, with mentum or not
4. Fls in spiral, lip pouch-like ..... SPIRANTHES (2)
4' Fls not in spiral, lip not pouch-like
5. Plant white, becoming ± yellow or brown ..... CEPHALANTHERA
5' Plant brown, tan, ± pink, ± red, ± purple (± green) ..... CORALLORHIZA
2' Lvs present at flower
6. Lvs cauline
7. Lvs 2, ± opposite, ± at mid stem ..... LISTERA
7' Lvs > 2, alternate, along stem
8. Lvs with > 1 lengthwise fold, green, white, or pink; flower not spurred ..... EPIPACTIS
8' Lvs with 1 lengthwise fold, green; flower spurred ..... PLATANTHERA
6' Lvs ± basal
9. Lvs 1(2)
10. Fls 1, lip pouch-like ..... CALYPSO
10' Fls > 1, lip not pouch-like ..... MALAXIS
9' Lvs > 1
11. Lvs in rosette ..... GOODYERA
11' Lvs not in rosette
12. Fls not in spiral, spurred ..... PIPERIA (2)
12' Fls in spiral, not spurred ..... SPIRANTHES (2)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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