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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Andy Murdock, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally ± radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3–5, generally notched to ± lobed; stamens 1–many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to ± flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock). [Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:14–17] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Nyctaginaceae

1. Stigma linear, included; inflorescence a head or umbel; fruit generally winged

2. Fruit wings thick or 0, not surrounding fruit body; flowers maturing outer before inner or ± simultaneously; receptacle conic, ± smooth ..... ABRONIA

2' Fruit wings translucent, surrounding fruit body; flowers maturing 1 side of inflorescence before the other; receptacle flat or rounded, studded with peg-shaped pedicel-like projections ..... TRIPTEROCALYX

1' Stigma ± spheric, generally exserted; inflorescence a head or umbel or not; fruit generally unwinged

3. Bracts 3 or 5(9), generally at least partially fused, forming a calyx-like involucre

4. Flowers strongly bilateral, in 1 involucre 3, blooming ± together; bracts 3; fruit bilateral ..... ALLIONIA

4' Flowers radial or ± bilateral, in 1 involucre 1–16, generally not blooming together; bracts 5(9); fruit radial ..... MIRABILIS

3' Bracts 1–3, free, not forming an involucre

5. Stem erect, > 7 mm diam; fruit glabrous, with 10 inconspicuous ribs ..... ANULOCAULIS

5' Stem decumbent to erect, generally << 5 mm diam; fruit hairy or not, with (4)5 prominent ribs or wings

6. Perianth tube 30–170 mm, trumpet-shaped; fruit oblong, glabrous, 5–10 mm ..... ACLEISANTHES

6' Perianth tube < 5 mm, bell-shaped; fruit club-shaped, glabrous or hairy, < 4 mm ..... BOERHAVIA


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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