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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb, [ shrub, tree], generally hairy, often glandular, resin canals appearing as dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers.
Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subopposite, or whorled, petioled or not; stipules 0.
Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, flowers 1 or not.
Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in [4s] 5s to 7s; calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes generally spreading; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head-like.
Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 5–6-valved [ drupe, drupe-like].
± 40 genera, 800 species: especially tropics, subtrop; some ornamental (Anagallis, Lysimachia). [Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) removed to Myrsinaceae. Based on phylogenetic research, all CA members of Myrsinaceae have been or need to be transferred to Lysimachia (see 2009 Willdenowia 39:49–54): Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso et al.; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; unfortunately, a combination for Trientalis latifolia Hook. in Lysimachia had not yet been published by the time of this writing. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has redefined Ericales. As delineated by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (see http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/), non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that grouping and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and – for woody members – wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a new segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. Lysimachia has been recognized (even by Linnaeus) as a rather complex group with close affinities to other genera (Glaux, for instance, has been shown to be an apetalous sp. of Lysimachia). Phylogenetic research (by Arne A. Anderberg and colleagues in Europe) on this and related genera indicated that they were actually specialized taxa that had evolved within Lysimachia. Shortly after publication of Volume 8 of Flora of North America, the necessary nomenclatural changes were made in Willdenowia (2009)39: 49–54 by Manns and Anderberg. With respect to the CA flora, the following names have been changed: Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi, & Soldano; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb. Unfortunatley, Trientalis latifolia Hooker, at one time considered a variety of the northeastern Trientalis borealis Raf. [now L. borealis (Raf.) U. Manns & Anderb.] and as a variety of Trientalis europaea, was not included in Manns & Anderberg's nomenclatural changes, and a new combination for it is needed.
1. Lvs mostly in ± 1 whorl near stem tip, a few also distributed along stem below or not ..... TRIENTALIS
1' Lvs distributed along stem
2. Corolla < calyx ..... Anagallis minima
2' Corolla 0 or >= calyx
3. Corolla 0, calyx corolla-like; flowers ± sessile, 1 in leaf axils ..... GLAUX
3' Corolla >= calyx, calyx not corolla-like; flowers pedicelled, 1 or in racemes in leaf axils
4. Corolla salmon, blue or blue-white; fruit circumscissile; annual ..... ANAGALLIS
4' Corolla yellow; fruit 5–6-valved; perennial herb ..... LYSIMACHIA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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