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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae

1. Outer, inner perianth parts generally dissimilar

2. Leaves 1–several, not mottled, abaxially not ribbed; sepals not striped, not grooved at base; petals wide, spreading to ± erect, enclosing stamens, pistil; stamens 6 ..... CALOCHORTUS

2' Leaves 2, generally purple-mottled, abaxially ribbed; sepals striped, grooved at base; petals narrow, ± erect; stamens 3 ..... SCOLIOPUS

1' Outer, inner perianth parts generally similar or ± dissimilar

3. Plants from scaly bulbs or corms or bulb-like rhizomes

4. Perianth parts with distinct glandular area in lower 1/2 ..... FRITILLARIA

4' Perianth parts without distinct glandular area

5. Leaves > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate); anthers attached at middle ..... LILIUM

5' Leaves 2–6(12), alternate; anthers attached at base ..... TULIPA

3' Plants from rhizomes (from elongate bulb of 1–2 fleshy scales, generally with small, bead-like parts of persistent rhizome in Erythronium)

6. Leaves cauline, ± not reduced

7. Flowers 1–7 in terminal clusters, without sharp bend at juncture of peduncle, pedicel; leaf base acute to cordate, clasping or not ..... PROSARTES

7' Flowers 1(2) in leaf axils, with sharp bend at juncture of peduncle, pedicel; leaf base cordate, clasping ..... STREPTOPUS

6' Leaves ± basal, if cauline then much reduced

8. Fruit a berry; flowers not nodding; perianth white or pink to rose-purple; leaves not mottled ..... CLINTONIA

8' Fruit a capsule; flowers generally nodding; perianth white with yellow base, cream, yellow, or pink; leaves often mottled ..... ERYTHRONIUM


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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