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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to shrub [ tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic.
Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled.
Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted.
Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled.
Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2.
Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cult as ornamental (in CA Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in CA. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; CA Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
1. Fertile stamens 2; staminodes 0 or 2
2. Corolla generally 4-lobed, 2–5 mm, white, not 2-lipped; fruit ± compressed, edge corky ..... LYCOPUS
2' Corolla 2-lipped, 2.5–35 mm, white or variously colored; fruit not compressed, edge not corky
3. Fertile anther sacs 1 or 2, on thread-like appendage hinged or joined to filament tip; sterile anther sac reduced, modified, or 0 ..... SALVIA
3' Fertile anther sacs 2, attached to filament tip side-by-side
4. Shrub, rounded to mound-like, generally 5–10 dm ..... POLIOMINTHA
4' Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub, generally < 5 dm
5. Calyx ± radial, lobes ± equal — e DMoj (New York Mtns) ..... MONARDA
5' Calyx ± 2-lipped, lobes of upper versus lower lips unequal
6. Infl bract margin spiny, veins ± raised ..... ACANTHOMINTHA (2)
6' Infl bract margin entire or hairy, not spiny, veins not raised
7. Perennial; inflorescences ± evenly spaced; calyx tube swollen below middle — DMtns ..... HEDEOMA
7' Annual; inflorescences densely clustered, ± terminal, head-like; calyx tube not swollen ..... POGOGYNE (2)
1' Fertile stamens 4; staminodes 0
8. Calyx 2-lipped, entire ..... SCUTELLARIA
8' Calyx generally 5- or 10-lobed, radial to 2-lipped with lips 2–3-lobed
9. Calyx 10-lobed, lobe tips recurved or hooked; stamens included in corolla tube ..... MARRUBIUM
9' Calyx generally 5-lobed, lobe tips straight; stamens generally exserted, hidden under upper lip to > corolla lobes
10. Stamens reclining on lower corolla lip; corolla violet, lower lip pouched; at least younger stems densely stellate-hairy — s DMoj, DSon ..... HYPTIS
10' Stamens ascending under, or ± parallel to and exceeding upper corolla lip, if present; corolla violet or not, lower lip ± flat or convex, not pouched; stems glabrous to hairy, not stellate-hairy
11. Infl bract margin spiny ..... ACANTHOMINTHA (2)
11' Infl bract margin glabrous to hairy, not spiny
12. Nutlets, ovary lobes fused laterally below middle; style sunken but not to base of ovary lobes
13. Corolla lower lip 5-lobed, upper lip 0; leaves lobed or 0 ..... TEUCRIUM
13' Corolla not lipped, 5-lobed, lower lobe generally reflexed; leaves entire ..... TRICHOSTEMA
12' Nutlets, ovary lobes separate to base; style arising between ovary lobes at their base
14. Corolla ± radial to ± bilateral, lobes 4 or 5, length ± equal
15. Fl clusters generally axillary, evenly spaced or together cylindric, generally spike-like; subtended by 2+ leaves ..... MENTHA
15' Fl clusters generally terminal, generally 1 per stem, head-like; subtended by involucre-like whorl of bracts ..... MONARDELLA
14' Corolla clearly bilateral, generally 2-lipped, lobes and lips unequal
16. Subshrub or shrub
17. Corolla < 8 mm; calyx not inflated in fruit ..... Clinopodium chandleri
17' Corolla generally > 20 mm; calyx ± inflated in fruit ..... LEPECHINIA
16' Annual or perennial herb (to subshrub, the corolla then salmon-orange)
18. Infls generally terminal, collectively ± dense, generally head- to spike- or panicle-like, occasionally interrupted by 1–3 internodes proximally
19. 2 or 4 stamens clearly exceeding corolla
20. Bracts at base of inflorescence, generally not overlapping, green ..... AGASTACHE
20' Bracts throughout inflorescence, overlapping, pale green or cream (± purple) ..... ORIGANUM (2)
19' Stamens not clearly exceeding lower corolla lobes
21. Annual; inflorescence bracts often >= flowers, linear to narrowly oblanceolate ..... POGOGYNE (2)
21' Perennial; inflorescence bracts generally < flowers, often lanceolate or wider
22. Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed, lower lip 2-lobed — lobes acuminate ..... PRUNELLA
22' Calyx ± radial, 5-lobed
23. Infl bracts pale green or cream (± purple), persistent; calyx 2–3.5 mm ..... ORIGANUM (2)
23' Infl bracts green, withering; calyx > 4 mm
24. Calyx tube ± 15-veined; upper 2 stamens > lower 2 ..... NEPETA
24' Calyx tube 5–10-veined; upper 2 stamens < lower 2 ..... STACHYS (3)
18' Infls axillary and terminal, generally separated by evident internodes subtended by bracts or leaves
25. Annual to perennial herb; nutlet ×-section 3-angled, tip truncate
26. Annual; corolla pink- to red-purple, lower lip lateral lobes << middle lobe, middle lobe 2-lobed; leaves not variegated ..... LAMIUM
26' Perennial; corolla yellow, lateral lobes ± < middle lobe, middle lobe not lobed; leaves generally variegated ..... [LAMIASTRUM]
25' Perennial to subshrub; nutlet ×-section ovate to ± round, tip ± rounded
27. Infl head-like, flowers > 12; calyx lobe tips densely white-short-hairy ..... PYCNANTHEMUM
27' Infl not head-like, flowers 1–12; calyx lobe tips glabrous to moderately hairy
28. St generally prostrate to decumbent
29. Most inflorescences, except proximal-most, subtended by bracts or much-reduced leaves ..... STACHYS (3)
29' Most inflorescences subtended by leaves
30. Lf blade ovate to broadly triangular; corolla 3–8 mm ..... Clinopodium douglasii
30' Lf blade round to reniform; corolla 8–25 mm ..... GLECHOMA
28' St erect
31. Most inflorescences, except proximal-most, subtended by bracts or much-reduced leaves ..... STACHYS (3)
31' Most inflorescences subtended by leaves
32. Calyx 14–17 mm; corolla salmon-orange, tube straight ..... Clinopodium mimuloides
32' Calyx 7–9 mm; corolla white to cream, occasionally tinged lavender, tube curved upward ..... MELISSA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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