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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

LAMIACEAE (Labiatae) MINT FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera


Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Lamiaceae

1. Fertile stamens 2; staminodes 0 or 2

2. Corolla generally 4-lobed, 2–5 mm, white, not 2-lipped; fruit ± compressed, edge corky ..... LYCOPUS

2' Corolla 2-lipped, 2.5–35 mm, white or variously colored; fruit not compressed, edge not corky

3. Fertile anther sacs 1 or 2, on thread-like appendage hinged or joined to filament tip; sterile anther sac reduced, modified, or 0 ..... SALVIA

3' Fertile anther sacs 2, attached to filament tip side-by-side

4. Shrub, rounded to mound-like, generally 5–10 dm ..... POLIOMINTHA

4' Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub, generally < 5 dm

5. Calyx ± radial, lobes ± equal — e Mojave Desert (New York Mtns) ..... MONARDA

5' Calyx ± 2-lipped, lobes of upper versus lower lips unequal

6. Inflorescence bract margin spiny, veins ± raised ..... ACANTHOMINTHA (2)

6' Inflorescence bract margin entire or hairy, not spiny, veins not raised

7. Perennial herb; inflorescences ± evenly spaced; calyx tube swollen below middle — Desert Mountains ..... HEDEOMA

7' Annual; inflorescences densely clustered, ± terminal, head-like; calyx tube not swollen ..... POGOGYNE (2)

1' Fertile stamens 4; staminodes 0

8. Calyx 2-lipped, entire ..... SCUTELLARIA

8' Calyx generally 5- or 10-lobed, radial to 2-lipped with lips 2–3-lobed

9. Calyx 10-lobed, lobe tips recurved or hooked; stamens included in corolla tube ..... MARRUBIUM

9' Calyx generally 5-lobed, lobe tips straight; stamens generally exserted, hidden under upper lip to > corolla lobes

10. Stamens reclining on lower corolla lip; corolla violet, lower lip pouched; at least younger stems densely stellate-hairy — s Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert ..... CONDEA

10' Stamens ascending under, or ± parallel to and exceeding upper corolla lip, if present; corolla violet or not, lower lip ± flat or convex, not pouched; stems glabrous to hairy, not stellate-hairy

11. Inflorescence bract margin spiny ..... ACANTHOMINTHA (2)

11' Inflorescence bract margin glabrous to hairy, not spiny

12. Nutlets, ovary lobes fused laterally below middle; style sunken but not to base of ovary lobes

13. Corolla lower lip 5-lobed, upper lip 0; leaves lobed or 0 ..... TEUCRIUM

13' Corolla not lipped, 5-lobed, lower lobe generally reflexed; leaves entire ..... TRICHOSTEMA

12' Nutlets, ovary lobes separate to base; style arising between ovary lobes at their base

14. Corolla ± radial to ± bilateral, lobes 4 or 5, length ± equal

15. Flower clusters generally axillary, evenly spaced or together cylindric, generally spike-like; subtended by 2+ leaves ..... MENTHA

15' Flower clusters generally terminal, generally 1 per stem, head-like; subtended by involucre-like whorl of bracts ..... MONARDELLA

14' Corolla clearly bilateral, generally 2-lipped, lobes and lips unequal

16. Subshrub or shrub

17. Corolla < 8 mm; calyx not inflated in fruit ..... Clinopodium chandleri

17' Corolla generally > 20 mm; calyx ± inflated in fruit ..... LEPECHINIA

16' Annual or perennial herb (to subshrub, the corolla then salmon-orange)

18. Inflorescences generally terminal, collectively ± dense, generally head- to spike- or panicle-like, occasionally interrupted by 1–3 internodes proximally

19. 2 or 4 stamens clearly exceeding corolla

20. Bracts at base of inflorescence, generally not overlapping, green ..... AGASTACHE

20' Bracts throughout inflorescence, overlapping, pale green or cream (± purple) ..... ORIGANUM (2)

19' Stamens not clearly exceeding lower corolla lobes

21. Annual; inflorescence bracts often >= flowers, linear to narrowly oblanceolate ..... POGOGYNE (2)

21' Perennial herb; inflorescence bracts generally < flowers, often lanceolate or wider

22. Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed, lower lip 2-lobed — lobes acuminate ..... PRUNELLA

22' Calyx ± radial, 5-lobed

23. Inflorescence bracts pale green or cream (± purple), persistent; calyx 2–3.5 mm ..... ORIGANUM (2)

23' Inflorescence bracts green, withering; calyx > 4 mm

24. Calyx tube ± 15-veined; upper 2 stamens > lower 2 ..... NEPETA

24' Calyx tube 5–10-veined; upper 2 stamens < lower 2 ..... STACHYS (3)

18' Inflorescences axillary and terminal, generally separated by evident internodes subtended by bracts or leaves

25. Annual to perennial herb; nutlet ×-section 3-angled, tip truncate

26. Annual; corolla pink- to red-purple, lower lip lateral lobes << middle lobe, middle lobe 2-lobed; leaves not variegated ..... LAMIUM

26' Perennial herb; corolla yellow, lateral lobes ± < middle lobe, middle lobe not lobed; leaves generally variegated ..... [LAMIASTRUM]

25' Perennial herb to subshrub; nutlet ×-section ovate to ± round, tip ± rounded

27. Inflorescence head-like, flowers > 12; calyx lobe tips densely white-short-hairy ..... PYCNANTHEMUM

27' Inflorescence not head-like, flowers 1–12; calyx lobe tips glabrous to moderately hairy

28. Stem generally prostrate to decumbent

29. Most inflorescences, except proximal-most, subtended by bracts or much-reduced leaves ..... STACHYS (3)

29' Most inflorescences subtended by leaves

30. Leaf blade ovate to broadly triangular; corolla 3–8 mm ..... Clinopodium douglasii

30' Leaf blade round to reniform; corolla 8–25 mm ..... GLECHOMA

28' Stem erect

31. Most inflorescences, except proximal-most, subtended by bracts or much-reduced leaves ..... STACHYS (3)

31' Most inflorescences subtended by leaves

32. Calyx 14–17 mm; corolla salmon-orange, tube straight ..... Clinopodium mimuloides

32' Calyx 7–9 mm; corolla white to cream, occasionally tinged lavender, tube curved upward ..... MELISSA

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