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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

GENTIANACEAE GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle, except as noted


Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

1. Base of sinus between corolla lobes truncate or generally with a variously shaped, sometimes fringed appendage, generally > 1 mm wide ..... GENTIANA

1' Base of sinus between corolla lobes unappendaged, acute, << 1 mm wide

2. Corolla ± rotate (bell-shaped), lobed ± to base, nectary pits prominent, fringed

3. Calyx, corolla 4-lobed; cauline leaves opposite or whorled; nectary pits generally 1 per corolla lobe (if 2, stem generally > 1 m, > 1.5 cm diam) ..... FRASERA

3' Calyx, corolla (4)5-lobed; cauline leaves generally (sub)opposite or some alternate; nectary pits 2 per corolla lobe — stem generally < 1 m, < 1 cm diam ..... SWERTIA

2' Corolla not rotate, with distinct tube, nectary pits 0 (but corolla sometimes with fringes or scales, nectaries sometimes elsewhere)

4. Corolla widely bell-shaped, lobes >> tube ..... EUSTOMA

4' Corolla narrowly or not bell-shaped, lobes <= tube

5. Calyx not appressed to, much wider than corolla tube; corolla yellow ..... CICENDIA

5' Calyx ± appressed to, not much wider than corolla tube; corolla pink, blue, violet, or white

6. Corolla salverform, white or generally pink

7. Stigmas 2, elliptic to ovate ..... CENTAURIUM

7' Stigmas 1, 2-lobed, or 2, stigmas or lobes wedge- to fan-shaped ..... ZELTNERA

6' Corolla not salverform, generally blue to violet or white

8. Corolla (17)20–55 mm, lobes ± entire to serrate, jagged, or fringed, without fringes or scales on adaxial surface ..... GENTIANOPSIS

8' Corolla < 20 mm, lobes ± entire, with fringes or scales on adaxial surface near base

9. Flowers 1, terminal on branches, parts generally in 4s; pedicels generally >> subtending internode ..... COMASTOMA

9' Flowers in terminal, also sometimes subterminal cymes, parts generally in 5s; pedicels generally < subtending internode ..... GENTIANELLA

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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