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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to shrub. Stem: simple to many-branched. Leaf: generally reduced distally along stem, thread-like to ± cylindric, spine-tipped, in age generally thick, rigid. Inflorescence: axillary; bracts 1–2; flowers generally 1 per axil. Flower: bisexual; sepals 4–5, thickened in fruit, persistent, generally tubercled to winged; stamens generally 5, exserted, style branches generally 2, exserted. Fruit: spheric to obovoid; tip ± depressed. Seed: horizontal.
± 100 species: ± worldwide. (Latin: salty, from habitats) [Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:398–403; Hrusa & Gaskin 2008 Madroño 55:113–131] An alternative treatment as separate genera Kali (Salsola australis, Salsola gobicola, Salsola paulsenii, Salsola ryanii, Salsola tragus), Caroxylon (Salsola damascena), and Salsola (Salsola soda) has been proposed (Akhani et al. 2007 Int J Plant Sci 168:931–956).
1. Shrub; leaves 3–9 mm, not reduced upward, oblong to ovate, generally puberulent ..... S. damascena
1' Annual; leaves 5–55 mm, generally reduced upward, thread-like to lanceolate, glabrous to hairy or papillate.
2. Plant strongly fleshy in fruit; sepal wings in fruit ± tubercled, thickened, rudimentary; leaf and bract narrowed abruptly to short-pointed tip; stem glabrous ..... S. soda
2' Plant not or ± fleshy in fruit; sepal wings in fruit thin, membranous, well developed on at least some fruits; leaf and bract tips narrowed gradually to sharp spine; stem glabrous to bristly, papillate-hairy, or with mixed hair types
3. Stem papillate-hairy or with mixed hair types
4. Sepals 5, generally all winged, sepal tips in fruit soft to spiny; stem hairs mixed bristly- and papillate-hairy, or papillate-hairy only; bract wing 0.3–0.6 mm ..... S. gobicola (2)
4' Sepals 5, 3 segments generally winged, 2 rudimentary to ± narrowly winged, sepal tips in fruit hardened into sharp 3–5-parted spine; stem hairs papillate; bract wing generally < 0.3 mm or 0 ..... S. paulsenii
3' Stem glabrous to bristly, bristles occasionally few or short
5. Smallest 2 sepal wings fan-shaped to broadly obovate, length 1–2 × width; anthers <= 0.7 mm ..... S. australis
5' Smallest 2 sepal wings oblong, spoon-shaped, lanceolate, linear, or rudimentary, generally not ± fan-shaped, length > 3 × width; anthers >= 0.6 mm
6. Bract wing narrow, 0.3–0.6 mm, opaque-white to ± translucent, base not surrounding fruit; sepal wings ± translucent, smallest 2 narrowly oblanceolate to linear, or 1 (both) rudimentary ..... S. gobicola (2)
6' Bract wing broad, generally > 0.4 mm, ± translucent, base surrounding fruit; sepal wings opaque to translucent, smallest 2 narrowly winged
7. Smallest 2 sepal wings narrower at base, broadened gradually or sharply to generally rounded tips; stem hairs sparse, short; anthers 0.6–0.9 mm ..... S. ryanii
7' Smallest 2 sepal wings with ± parallel sides, tip unevenly lobed, or wing linear and tip ± truncate; stem glabrous to bristly; anthers 0.6–1.3 mm ..... S. tragus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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