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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual or perennial herb, glabrous or powdery.
Stem: branches 0 to generally erect ( spreading).
Leaf: generally petioled; blade linear to deltate or diamond-shaped, entire to lobed or toothed, reduced distally on stem; proximal leaves generally early- deciduous.
Inflorescence: spheric clusters or flower 1, in spikes, or panicle-like, generally dense; bracts generally 0; flowers generally sessile.
Flower: sepals generally 5, fused or not, persistent, flat to keeled; stamens generally 5; stigmas 2(5).
Fruit: enclosed or subtended by calyx; fruit wall membranous or papery, free or attached to seed and generally loosening in age.
Seed: vertical or horizontal, lenticular to ± spheric, red-brown to black; wall thin.
± 100 species: temperate; some cultivated for food or grain. (Greek: goose foot, from leaf shape of some species) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:275–299] Fr generally required for identification. Other species in TJM (1993) now treated in Dysphania.
Unabridged references: [Crawford 1975 Brittonia 27:279–288; Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]
Unabridged note: Powder on plants from small, inflated hairs.
1. Perennial from stout, fleshy caudex; calyx tube generally > lobes ..... C. californicum
1' Annual; calyx tube generally < lobes
2. Seeds all vertical or both horizontal and vertical; calyx lobes generally 3(4) in flowers with vertical fruit, 4–5 in flowers with horizontal fruit
3. Lf blade white-powdery abaxially, margins acutely-toothed ..... C. glaucum var. salinum
3' Lf blade glabrous abaxially at least in age, margins entire to variously toothed
4. Lf blade thick to fleshy, margin generally serrate, abaxially ± densely powdery and becoming glabrous ..... C. macrospermum
4' Lf blade thin, margin entire or toothed, generally glabrous
5. Fl clusters 3–10 mm diam, in unbranched terminal and/or axillary spikes; sepals generally red, fleshy in fruit; all seeds vertical
6. Fl clusters subtended by leafy bracts throughout inflorescence; stamens generally 1; fruit maturing from base to tip of plant ..... C. foliosum
6' Fl clusters subtended by leafy bracts only in proximal 1/2 of inflorescence; stamens 3; fruit maturing from tip to base of plant ..... C. capitatum
7. Fl clusters 6–10 mm diam; fruit red, fleshy; leaf blade base truncate to cordate (hastate), margin generally sharply toothed ..... var. capitatum
7' Fl clusters 3–5 mm diam; fruit green to red, not fleshy; leaf blade base tapered to truncate, margin entire or ± toothed ..... var. parvicapitatum
5' Fl clusters 2–4 mm diam, in axillary branched spikes; sepals green, membranous; seeds generally vertical, occasionally horizontal
8. Vertical seeds enclosed by calyx tube; stamen 1 ..... C. chenopodioides
8' Vertical seeds subtended by calyx lobes, lobes fused only at base; stamens 2–3 ..... C. rubrum
9. St prostrate to spreading; leaf margin entire or shallowly toothed ..... var. humile
9' St erect to ascending; leaf margin deeply toothed ..... var. rubrum
2' Most or all seeds horizontal; calyx lobes generally 5
10. Fls 1 or in cymes, arranged in axillary and terminal panicles or branched spikes; leaf blade glabrous to ± powdery abaxially ..... C. simplex
10' Fl clusters in terminal and/or axillary spikes and/or panicles; leaf blade generally powdery
11. Primary leaves not fleshy, generally 2-lobed, generally toothed on margin
12. Fr wall pitted at 20×
13. Plant scented; proximal leaf blades entire to 2-lobed or toothed near base, densely powdery; fruit wall, seed coat ± white ..... C. watsonii
13' Plant generally not scented; all leaf blades entire, or 2-lobed near base and serrate or irregularly toothed, powdery; fruit wall brown, seed coat black ..... C. berlandieri
14. Style base not yellow in fruit; seed 1–1.3 mm diam ..... var. sinuatum
14' Style base yellow in fruit; seed 1.2–1.5 mm diam ..... var. zschackei
12' Fr wall not pitted at 20×
15. Lf powdery in youth, especially abaxially, or generally glabrous; fruit wall scale-like at 20×; seed margin sharply angled ..... C. murale
15' Lf powdery; fruit wall smooth or papillate at 20×; seed margin rounded or ridged
16. Lf blade sides ± parallel from near base, generally not lobed, generally finely serrate; fruit wall smooth, generally attached to seed in age ..... C. strictum var. glaucophyllum
16' Lf blade sides not parallel, generally lobed or toothed; fruit wall papillate or smooth, generally free from seed in age
17. Plant to 1 m; inflorescence branches straight; flower clusters generally in axillary and terminal branched spikes ..... C. album
17' Plant to 2 m; inflorescence branches ± curved or pendent; flower clusters in axillary and terminal spikes or panicles ..... C. missouriense
11' Primary leaves ± fleshy, entire or 1–2 pairs of lobes or teeth near base
18. Lf blade 1-veined from base, entire
19. Lf blade 4–6 mm wide, generally linear to narrowly lanceolate (elliptic), powdery abaxially, tip generally acuminate; inflorescence dense ..... C. desiccatum (2)
19' Lf blade generally < 3.5 mm wide, linear, densely powdery abaxially, tip ± round; inflorescence open ..... C. leptophyllum
18' Lf blade 3-veined from base, entire or 1–2 pairs of lobes or teeth near base
20. Lf blade length 3–many × width
21. Fr wall attached to seed ..... C. hians
21' Fr wall free from seed
22. Plant erect to spreading; leaf blade length 3–many × width, entire; calyx lobes generally enclosing fruit in age; seed coat warty ..... C. desiccatum (2)
22' Plant generally erect; leaf blade length 3–5 × width, entire or generally 1–2 lobes near base; calyx lobes ± spreading in age; seed coat wrinkled ..... C. pratericola
20' Lf blade length to 3 × width
23. Lf blade length 2–3 × width, elliptic, lanceolate, or oblong
24. Plant erect, branched; leaf base generally rounded to tapered, tip generally obtuse to round, petiole generally strongly upcurved; fruit wall smooth ..... C. atrovirens
24' Plant prostrate to ascending, branched from base; leaf tip acute to round, petiole not upcurved; fruit wall papillate ..... C. littoreum
23' Lf blade length generally < 2 × width, ± diamond-shaped to ovate, deltate, or elliptic
25. Fr wall attached to seed
26. Plant not ill-smelling, spheric in fruit, many-branched distally, branches forked in pairs; leaves entire or generally 2-lobed, occasionally toothed; seed < 0.8 mm ..... C. nevadense
26' Plant ill-smelling, not spheric in fruit, few-branched from base, branches not forked in pairs; leaves entire; seed > 0.9 mm ..... C. vulvaria
25' Fr wall free from seed
27. Infl clusters in spikes; leaves ± powdery abaxially; lobes near leaf base spreading; fruit visible between calyx lobes in age; seed margin thick, square in ×-section ..... C. fremontii
27' Infl clusters in panicles; leaves moderately to densely powdery abaxially; lobes near leaf base occasionally spreading; fruit hidden by calyx lobes in age; seed margin obtuse in ×-section ..... C. incanum var. occidentale
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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