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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, subshrub from caudex or rhizome, glabrous to tomentose.
Stem: short to high-climbing, generally twisting, twining.
Leaf: generally > 1 cm, linear to reniform or sagittate to hastate (deeply divided).
Inflorescence: peduncle generally 1-flowered; bracts generally ± opposite, lobed or not, > 1 mm below calyx, not hiding it, small, to < 1 mm below calyx, hiding it or ± so, large.
Flower: generally showy; corolla glabrous, white or yellow to pink or purple; ovary chamber 1, style 1, stigma lobes 2, oblong, swollen.
Fruit: ± spheric, ± inflated.
Seed: generally ± 4.
± 25 species: temperate, worldwide. (Greek: hiding calyx, by bracts of some) [Brummitt 2002 Madroño 49:130–131] Intermediates common, often difficult to identify. Molecular evidence indicates close relationship with Convolvulus (Carine et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1070–1085). Bracts qualify as bractlets by some definitions. Lf blade length measured along midrib.
Unabridged references: [Brummitt 1980 Kew Bull 35(2):327–328]
1. Bracts > 1 mm below calyx, not hiding it, <= 5 mm wide or variously toothed or lobed like leaves
2. Plant glabrous
3. Bracts elliptic to widely elliptic-oblong, entire ..... C. peirsonii (2)
3' Bracts generally linear, entire or lobes basal
4. St ± stiffly erect, intertwined; leaf linear to narrowly triangular, lobes 0 or ± linear, sinus rounded ..... C. longipes
4' St trailing to strongly climbing, ± not intertwined; leaf triangular to reniform, lobes wider than linear, 2(3)-tipped, sinus V-shaped or ± closed ..... C. purpurata
5. St strongly climbing, > 1 m; leaf triangular, tip acute, sinus V-shaped, bracts rarely lobed ..... subsp. purpurata
5' St trailing to weakly climbing, generally < 1 m; leaf ovate-triangular to reniform, tip generally rounded to notched, sinus generally ± closed; bracts generally with small lobes ..... subsp. saxicola
2' Plant puberulent to tomentose at least around leaf sinus or at peduncle tip
6. Bracts entire, not lobed like leaves, ± sessile ..... C. occidentalis subsp. occidentalis
6' Bracts toothed or lobed like leaves, stalked
7. Lf lobes 7–9, linear, finger-like ..... C. stebbinsii
7' Lf ± entire or lobes 2, not linear, not finger-like
8. Lf blade widely triangular to ± reniform, tip acute to acuminate or notched, lobes generally 2-tipped; hairs ± densely spreading ..... C. malacophylla subsp. malacophylla
8' Lf blade generally narrowly triangular, tip ± acute, lobes generally 1-tipped; hairs minute or fine ..... C. occidentalis subsp. fulcrata
1' Bracts < 1 mm below calyx, ± hiding it, often > 4 mm wide, not lobed like leaves
9. Bracts < 4 mm wide
10. Plant hairs dense, not appressed ..... C. collina subsp. tridactylosa
10' Plant hairs 0 or minutely appressed
11. Lf blade narrowly triangular, lobes clearly defined, directed ± basally, base with deep sinus ..... C. peirsonii (2)
11' Lf blade generally triangular-hastate to reniform, lobes not clearly defined, directed ± laterally, base truncate to wedge-shaped or widely rounded, occasionally with shallow sinus
12. Bracts ± obtuse; plant glabrous ..... C. atriplicifolia subsp. buttensis (2)
12' Bracts acute; plant hairs generally minutely appressed ..... C. subacaulis subsp. episcopalis (2)
9' Bracts > 4 mm wide
13. St trailing or weakly to strongly climbing, >= 1 m
14. Plant from rhizomes, stem not woody; peduncle 1-flowered; marshes, riverbanks, or disturbed areas
15. Bracts strongly sac-like at base, margins overlapped; corolla generally 55–75 mm ..... C. silvatica subsp. disjuncta
15' Bracts not strongly sac-like at base, margins not overlapped; corolla 30–58 mm ..... C. sepium
16. Bracts < sepals; corolla generally ± 40 mm ..... subsp. binghamiae
16' Bracts generally > sepals; corolla 30–58 mm ..... subsp. limnophila
14' Plant from woody caudex, lower stem often woody; peduncle often > 1-flowered; generally dry places ..... C. macrostegia
17. Bracts 16–30 mm wide, strongly keeled to ± sac-like at base
18. Bracts 19–37 mm; calyx 16–25 mm; corolla 47–68 mm; stamens 23–35 mm; s ChI ..... subsp. amplissima
18' Bracts 13–26 mm; calyx 10–22 mm; corolla 36–60 mm; stamens 17–26 mm; n ChI ..... subsp. macrostegia
17' Bracts 4–16 mm wide, flat or ± keeled
19. Bracts obtuse ..... subsp. cyclostegia
19' Bracts acute
20. Lvs hairy ..... subsp. arida
20' Lvs glabrous to puberulent
21. Lf blade triangular, > 7 mm wide except basal lobes ..... subsp. intermedia
21' Lf blade linear to narrowly triangular, < 7 mm wide except basal lobes ..... subsp. tenuifolia
13' St not or only weakly climbing, < 1 m
22. Plant hairs 0 or sparsely appressed-minute and leaf triangular-hastate to reniform
23. Corolla deep pink or ± purple; leaf reniform, glabrous, ± fleshy; ocean beaches, dunes ..... C. soldanella
23' Corolla white or ± yellow (pink- or purple-tinged); leaf ± reniform or not, glabrous or not, not fleshy; inland
24. Bracts obtuse; plant generally glabrous ..... C. atriplicifolia subsp. buttensis (2)
24' Bracts acute; plant generally minutely appressed-hairy ..... C. subacaulis subsp. episcopalis (2)
22' Plant tomentose or hairs densely spreading, or leaf not triangular-hastate to reniform
25. St well developed, < 100 cm, without basal rosette of leaves
26. Plant tomentose; leaf margin wavy ..... C. collina subsp. venusta (2)
26' Plant tomentose or hairs densely spreading; leaf margin not wavy ..... C. malacophylla
27. Lf widely triangular to ± reniform, tip generally obtuse to notched, lobes generally 2-tipped; hairs brown or golden-brown (± gray); CaR, SN ..... subsp. malacophylla
27' Lf ± narrowly triangular, tip generally acute, lobes generally 1-tipped (2nd tip 0 or poorly developed); hairs ± gray (± brown); SnFrB, SCoR, WTR ..... subsp. pedicellata
25' St poorly developed, < 30 cm, <= basal rosette of leaves
28. Plant hairs sparse to ± dense, short, spreading to reflexed; leaf margin not or ± wavy ..... C. subacaulis subsp. subacaulis
28' Plant ± tomentose; leaf margin wavy ..... C. collina
29. Sepals tomentose ..... subsp. venusta (2)
29' Sepals glabrous or strigose at center
30. Lf tip obtuse, lobes generally indistinct, blade triangular to reniform ..... subsp. collina
30' Lf tip acute, lobes distinct, blade triangular ..... subsp. oxyphylla
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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