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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, perennial herb; roots septate; generally monoecious; scape generally straight at inflorescence. Leaf: petiole cylindric to 3-angled; submersed blades tapered to base; floating or emergent blades generally sagittate (linear to ovate). Inflorescence: lowest node generally with 3 pistillate flowers, those above generally staminate. Flower: sepals 3–10 mm, reflexed to appressed in fruit; petals generally entire. Staminate flower: stamens 7–30. Pistillate flower: receptacle convex; pistils many, spiralled on convex receptacle. Fruit: body generally 2–3.5 mm, strongly compressed, abaxially winged or ridged; beak generally lateral, spreading to erect.
± 30 species: worldwide, especially America. (Latin: arrow, from leaf shape) Some species weedy; tubers of some eaten by humans, wildlife; Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush reportedly persisting at Stafford Lake and Chileno Laguna, Marin Co.
Unabridged references: [Bogin 1955 Mem New York Bot Gard 9:179–233]

Key to Sagittaria

1. Pistillate flowers ± sessile; scape bent at inflorescence ..... S. rigida

1' Pistillate flowers pedicelled; scape straight at inflorescence

2. Stolons, tubers 0; lowest inflorescence node with 2 bisexual flowers ..... S. montevidensis subsp. calycina

2' Stolons, tubers present; lowest inflorescence node with 3 pistillate flowers

3. Emergent leaf blades linear to lanceolate; pedicels recurved in fruit, thickened ..... S. sanfordii

3' Emergent leaf blades generally sagittate; pedicels ascending in fruit, not thickened

4. Basal lobes of emergent leaf blades generally > terminal; tubers spheric, tan ..... S. longiloba

4' Basal lobes of emergent leaf blades <= terminal; tubers oblong, ± white or ± blue

5. Fruit beak terminal, erect, 0.1–0.4 mm; emergent leaves with petioles recurved, basal lobes of blades < terminal ..... S. cuneata

5' Fruit beak lateral, spreading, 1–2 mm; emergent leaves with petioles ascending to erect, basal lobes of blades ± = terminal ..... S. latifolia


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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