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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Kim R. Kersh

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70–180 cm. Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally ± wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous. Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2–4 mm, triangular-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6–14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much-reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.
150–200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Mediterranean. (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula) [Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147–178]
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)

Key to Scrophularia

1. Annual, 15–60(90) cm; flowers generally 1–5 in leaf axils; calyx lobes lanceolate, acuminate, margins not scarious ..... S. peregrina

1' Perennial herb, occasionally shrubby, 70–180 cm; flowers 3–10(24) per panicle branch; calyx lobes triangular-ovate, acute to rounded, margins generally scarious

2. Inflorescence glandular-long-soft-hairy ..... S. villosa

2' Inflorescence glandular-puberulent to -hairy

3. Corolla dark red to ± black, appearing much-inflated proximally, mouth much-constricted ..... S. atrata

3' Corolla generally less dark, inflated proximally, mouth ± constricted

4. Leaves yellow- to gray-green (dull-green); base wedge-shaped; pedicels slender, generally curved upward; corolla 7–9 mm, 2-colored, upper lobes maroon, lower cream, edges ± pink ..... S. desertorum

4' Leaves dark to light green; base truncate to cordate or occasionally ± wedge-shaped; pedicels slender to ± stout, straight, not curved upward; corolla 8–14 mm, 1–2-colored, red to maroon or ± green-brown throughout, or upper lobes red to maroon and lower paler or ± yellow-green

5. Staminode tip club-shaped to obovate; California Floristic Province ..... S. californica

5' Staminode tip fan-shaped; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... S. lanceolata


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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