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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb, ± green. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally 1–several from generally short caudex. Leaf: alternate, generally ± basal, generally < inflorescence, toothed or generally > 7-lobed, generally reduced distally on stem; petiole generally < blade. Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like; bracts (at least proximal) generally ± like distal leaves; pedicels 1–6 mm. Flower: calyx lobes (2,4)5, distal-most generally shortest (all generally < tube), lateral fused in pairs; corolla white or yellow to red or purple, upper lip hood- or beak-like, curved or not, lower lip 3-lobed, narrow to fan-shaped, central lobe generally smallest; fertile stamens 4, generally glabrous, anthers generally included, sacs 2 per stamen, equal; stigma head-like, generally exserted. Fruit: generally ± ovate or lanceolate in outline, asymmetric, opening mostly on upper side. Seed: smooth or netted.
± 500 species: cool wet northern temperate, circumboreal, South America. (Latin: lice, from belief that ingestion by stock promoted lice infestation) [Ree 2005 Int J Plant Sci 166:595–613]
1. Leaf simple, ± toothed; calyx lobes generally 2 (4 in some plants); fruit ± lanceolate in outline
2. Upper corolla lip hooded, not beaked; leaf ± doubly crenate; stem generally simple ..... P. crenulata
2' Upper corolla lip extended in a long, down-curved beak; leaf serrate to dentate; stem generally branched distally ..... P. racemosa
1' Leaf (at least some) deeply lobed to compound; calyx lobes 5; fruit ovoid
3. Proximal cauline leaf segments generally 3–5(11), ovate, entire to toothed, terminal >> lateral; basal leaves 0 at flower ..... P. howellii
3' Proximal cauline leaf segments > 5, serrate to divided, terminal segment not largest; basal leaves generally present at flower (except Pedicularis bracteosa)
4. Corolla not club-like, upper lip with a long, narrow beak
5. Corolla white to ± yellow, upper lip 4–5.5 mm, beak curved downward, not like an elephant's trunk ..... P. contorta
5' Corolla pink to purple, upper lip 3.5–18 mm, beak curved upward, ± like an elephant's trunk
6. Inflorescence densely hairy; beak 3–5 mm; lower lip ± fan-like ..... P. attollens
6' Inflorescence ± glabrous; beak 6–13 mm; lateral lobes of lower lip resembling ears ..... P. groenlandica
4' Corolla ± club-like, upper lip hooded, not beaked
7. Corolla deep red to red-purple (yellow to orange), lower lip ± 1/4 upper ..... P. densiflora
7' Corolla ± yellow or ± purple, lower lip generally >> 1/4 upper
8. Stem 30–110 cm; inflorescence > leaves; basal leaves generally 0 at flower; corolla ± yellow ..... P. bracteosa var. flavida
8' Stem <= 30 cm; inflorescence generally <= leaves; basal leaves present at flower; corolla ± yellow or ± purple
9. Corolla ± yellow, generally tinged red or tipped purple, hairy; filaments hairy ..... P. semibarbata
9' Corolla pink to ± purple, glabrous; filaments glabrous
10. Corolla 30–42 mm, pale purple, darker-tipped, lower lip > 1/2 upper, its lobes rounded, wavy-margined; leaf margin wavy, white, thickened ..... P. centranthera
10' Corolla 17–24 mm, pink or purple to purple-red, lower lip < upper, its lobes pointed, not wavy-margined; leaf margin not wavy, white, or thickened ..... P. dudleyi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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