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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

MIMULUS MONKEYFLOWER
Glabrous to hairy. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: opposite, generally ± sessile, generally toothed or entire, generally green or ± red. Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil. Flower: occasionally cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, generally unequal; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold, or yellow, lower lip base occasionally swollen, ± closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; anther sacs spreading; placentas 2, axile or parietal; stigma lobes generally flat, generally included. Fruit: generally ovoid to fusiform, generally upcurved if elongate, generally ± fragile, loculicidal near tip (hard, indehiscent), chambers 1–2. Seed: many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, ± yellow to dark brown.
± 100 species: North America, Chile, eastern Asia, southern Africa, New Zealand, Australia. (Latin: little mime or comic actor, from face-like corolla of some species) [Thompson 2005 Syst Bot Monogr 75:1–213] Limb width measured between most distant points across corolla face.

Key to Mimulus

1. Pedicel generally > calyx; corolla generally deciduous; placenta axile, fused, not parted by fruit dehiscence

2. Perennial herb; corolla lavender to purple, or orange to red — tube-throat > 2 cm

3. Leaf pinnately veined; corolla lavender to purple, mouth ± closed by swollen lower lip base ..... M. ringens

3' Leaf palmately veined; corolla lavender to purple or orange to red, mouth open

4. Corolla orange to red; anthers, stigma exserted ..... M. cardinalis

4' Corolla lavender to purple; anthers, stigma included ..... M. lewisii

2' Generally annual; corolla color various, including yellow; if perennial herb, corolla yellow

5. Calyx in fruit strongly, asymmetrically swollen, uppermost lobe longest, lowest 2 generally upcurved; corolla yellow, lower lip base generally swollen, ± closing mouth

6. Bracts subtending flowers a ± round disk, completely encircling stem, glaucous ..... M. glaucescens

6' Bracts or leaves subtending flowers not a round disk, petioled or only base encircling stem, not glaucous

7. At least some leaves ± pinnately and narrowly lobed or dissected ..... M. laciniatus

7' Leaves not pinnately lobed or dissected, but base occasionally irregularly dissected or lobed

8. Bracts or leaves subtending flowers linear to lanceolate, not fused at base around stem ..... M. nudatus

8' Bracts or leaves subtending flowers ovate to cordate or round, occasionally fused at base around stem

9. Flowers generally > 5 per stem, in a bracted raceme, cleistogamous or not, corolla tube-throat 2–40 mm; annual or perennial herb ..... M. guttatus

9' Flowers 1–5 per stem, 1 in axils of upper leaves, not in bracted raceme, flowers not cleistogamous, corolla tube-throat 17–45 mm; perennial herb ..... M. tilingii

5' Calyx in fruit not or symmetrically swollen, lobes generally ± equal or lowest 2 longest, not upcurved; corolla yellow or not, lower lip base not swollen, not closing mouth

10. Calyx lobes ± = tube; plant hairs dense, long, soft, wavy ..... M. pilosus

10' Calyx lobes << tube; plant glabrous, puberulent, or hairs ± straight

11. Perennial herb; stolons or rhizomes present

12. Calyx glabrous; leaf palmately 3-veined ..... M. primuloides

13. Leaves linear to oblanceolate, ± erect, not in rosettes ..... var. linearifolius

13' Leaves oblong to obovate, generally ± spreading in ± distinct rosettes ..... var. primuloides

12' Calyx ± glabrous to hairy; leaf pinnately >= 5-veined

14. Corolla tube-throat 28–40 mm, tube funnel-shaped, generally > 4 mm wide ..... M. dentatus

14' Corolla tube-throat 15–26 mm, tube ± cylindric, 2–4 mm wide except at mouth ..... M. moschatus

11' Annual; stolons and rhizomes 0

15. Calyx tube ± hairy

16. Leaf palmately veined; calyx 8–10(13 in fruit) mm; corolla ± pink to white ..... M. parishii

16' Leaf ± pinnately veined; calyx 3–8 mm; corolla yellow

17. Corolla lobe base without large blotches; calyx lobes ± acute; pedicel in fruit not growing away from light ..... M. floribundus

17' Corolla lobe base each with 1 large, red-purple dot; calyx lobes rounded; pedicel in fruit growing away from light ..... M. norrisii

15' Calyx tube glabrous to puberulent

18. Calyx very swollen in fruit, membranous; corolla lavender, rose to ± white, or yellow

19. Upper leaves sessile; corolla lavender, pink to ± white, or yellow

20. Basal leaves not in rosette; corolla yellow ..... M. evanescens

20' Basal leaves in rosette; corolla pink to lavender or white (± yellow)

21. Corolla limb < 14 mm wide, tube-throat 7–16 mm; drained upland areas ..... M. inconspicuus

21' Corolla limb 4–6 mm wide, tube-throat 7–11 mm; vernally wet depressions ..... M. latidens

19' Upper leaves petioled; corolla generally yellow

22. Corolla tube-throat 3–6.5 mm ..... M. breviflorus

22' Corolla tube-throat 7–13 mm ..... M. pulsiferae

18' Calyx ± enlarged in fruit, ± corky or membranous; corolla maroon, purple, pink, lavender, yellow, or partly white

23. All corolla lobes yellow or white

24. Lower calyx lobes > upper ..... M. alsinoides

24' Lower calyx lobes ± = upper

25. Corolla tube-throat 4–10 mm

26. Corolla tube-throat 6–10 mm; calyx lobes ciliate ..... M. rubellus (2)

26' Corolla tube-throat 4–6 mm; calyx lobes glabrous ..... M. suksdorfii

25' Corolla tube-throat 10–19 mm

27. White corolla lobes 0–4; calyx ± corky in fruit; pedicel thickened, ± rigid in fruit ..... M. bicolor

27' White corolla lobes 0; calyx membranous in fruit; pedicel thin, flexible in fruit ..... M. montioides (2)

23' Some or all corolla lobes maroon, purple, pink, or lavender

28. Corolla tube-throat 2–10 mm

29. Calyx 2–3.5 mm; San Bernardino Mountains ..... M. exiguus

29' Calyx 3.5–9 mm; widespread

30. Corolla persistent; pedicel 2–15 mm ..... M. breweri

30' Corolla deciduous; pedicel 5–27 mm

31. Calyx lobes ± glabrous ..... M. androsaceus

31' Calyx lobes ciliate

32. Corolla clearly 2-lipped, upper 2 lobes << lower 3; limb 5–9 mm wide ..... M. gracilipes

32' Corolla not clearly 2-lipped, upper 2 lobes ± = lower 3; limb 3–4 mm wide ..... M. rubellus (2)

28' Corolla tube-throat 8–22 mm

33. Upper corolla lip 4-lobed, lower large, 2-lobed, yellow ..... M. shevockii

33' Corolla not lipped, or upper corolla lip 2-lobed, lower of 3 ± equal, partly yellow or all rose to purple lobes

34. Calyx generally with red-brown spots, widely corky-ribbed in fruit, lobes acute to long-tapered ..... M. filicaulis

34' Calyx generally without spots, membranous in fruit, lobes generally obtuse to rounded or truncate

35. All leaves linear, generally 1–3 mm wide; pedicel 3–25 mm ..... M. montioides (2)

35' At least lower leaves ovate, > 3 mm wide; pedicel 10–65 mm

36. Corolla not lipped, tube-throat 10–22 mm, lobes equally colored; upper leaves ± linear ..... M. palmeri

36' Corolla strongly 2-lipped, tube-throat 8–13 mm, upper lip darker; upper leaves elliptic to ovate ..... M. purpureus

1' Pedicel generally < calyx; corolla generally persistent; placenta parietal, at least tip parted by fruit dehiscence (or fruit hard, indehiscent)

37. Rhizomatous perennial herb to shrub; calyx 1.5–5 cm; leaf edges flat to ± rolled under; main leaf axils generally with clusters of smaller leaves

38. Rhizomatous perennial herb, 1 inflorescence per stem; leaf adaxially hairy; calyx base generally swollen; corolla bright yellow; fruit splitting 4-parted at tip ..... M. clevelandii

38' Subshrub or shrub, > 1 inflorescence per stem; leaf adaxially glabrous; calyx base not swollen; corolla pale yellow to ± yellow or yellow-brown, yellow-orange, orange, or red; fruit splitting only along upper suture ..... M. aurantiacus

39. Lower leaf surface puberulent to densely hairy, upper generally paler

40. Calyx tube glabrous ..... var. aurantiacus

40' Calyx tube puberulent to hairy ..... var. pubescens

39' Leaves glabrous, uniformly green

41. Corolla tube-throat 26–37 mm; corolla brightly dark yellow, orange, or red

42. Leaves lance-elliptic to ovate or obovate, generally flat or ± rolled under at edges ..... var. parviflorus

42' Leaves linear, edges generally tightly rolled under ..... var. puniceus

41' Corolla tube-throat 37–57 mm; corolla pale yellow or pale orange

43. Corolla lobes entire; calyx tube flared distally ..... var. aridus

43' Corolla lobes 2-lobed; calyx tube appressed to corolla tube distally ..... var. grandiflorus

37' Annual (perennial herb); calyx generally < 2 cm; leaf edges ± flat; main leaf axils not with clusters of smaller leaves

44. Corolla radial, ± salverform, purple-brown and ± white, throat floor without longitudinal folds

45. Corolla limb ± purple-brown at base, veins << 0.5 mm wide, unpatterned, purple-brown, fading into white border ..... M. mohavensis

45' Corolla limb ± all white, veins > 0.5 mm wide, bold, intricately patterned, purple-brown ..... M. pictus

44' Corolla bilateral, generally not purple-brown and white, generally not salverform, throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds — flowers occasionally cleistogamous in some species

46. Fruit hard, generally oblique at base, tardily dehiscent; flower generally Mar–Apr

47. Stem < 1 cm; leaf generally ± linear, glabrous to puberulent, at least basal 1/2 ± ciliate; vernally wet depressions, seepage areas

48. Corolla tube-throat 5–10 mm ..... M. pygmaeus

48' Corolla tube-throat 15–60 mm

49. Corolla tube-throat glabrous outside; lowest corolla lobe magenta, base with a large, dark purple spot ..... M. angustatus

49' Corolla tube-throat puberulent outside; lowest corolla lobe gold, base with scattered, small, dark dots ..... M. pulchellus

47' Stem generally > 1 cm; leaf generally not linear, generally not ciliate, or both ciliate and hairy; vernally wet depressions or not

50. Corolla lobes with large dark spot at center of base; stigma lobes ± equal; flowers not cleistogamous

51. Corolla pink to white; flowers 2 per node; limestone crevices ..... M. rupicola

51' Corolla magenta to purple; flowers 1 per node; vernally wet depressions ..... M. tricolor

50' Corolla lobes not all with large dark spots; lower stigma lobe >> upper; flowers occasionally cleistogamous

52. Calyx 18–21 mm ..... M. traskiae

52' Calyx 5–17 mm

53. Leaves generally ciliate at base; corolla limb 3–11 mm wide; if flowers cleistogamous then leaves ± purple abaxially

54. Corolla limb widely spreading; tube-throat not marked laterally with yellow, throat and lower lip generally without folds and rarely yellow ..... M. congdonii

54' Corolla limb slightly spreading; tube-throat yellow near stamen attachment, floor and lower lip base with 2 prominent yellow folds ..... M. latifolius

53' Leaves generally hairy, not ciliate; corolla limb 10–18 mm wide; if flowers cleistogamous then leaves green abaxially

55. Corolla lower lip ± absent; fruit 2.5–6.5 mm; asymmetric-ovoid ..... M. douglasii

55' Both corolla lips well developed; fruit 6–12 mm, nearly cylindrical ..... M. kelloggii

46' Fruit generally fragile, symmetric at base, generally rapidly dehiscent; flower generally Apr–Sep

56. All flower nodes with 1 flower or fruit, calyx generally inflated or swollen

57. Longitudinal folds of corolla throat floor densely hairy, white or yellow proximally, white distally; anthers ciliate ..... M. viscidus

58. Corolla lobes dark at base, without red-purple midveins; throat ceiling hairy; limb face glabrous; lower stigma lobe 3–4 × upper ..... var. compactus

58' Corolla lobes with dark red-purple midveins; throat ceiling glabrous, limb face generally hairy; lower stigma lobe 1.5 × upper ..... var. viscidus

57' Longitudinal folds of corolla throat floor glabrous or minutely puberulent, all yellow; anthers glabrous

59. Corolla tube-throat 7–10 mm, limb 4–7 mm wide; lower stigma lobe 5–7 × upper ..... M. rattanii

59' Corolla tube-throat 9–23 mm, limb 8–26 mm wide; stigma lobes ± equal ..... M. fremontii

60. Corolla magenta to dark red-purple ..... var. fremontii

60' Corolla yellow ..... var. vandenbergensis

56' Most flower nodes with 2 flowers or fruits; calyx occasionally inflated

61. Stigma exserted or at end of corolla tube-throat

62. Corolla lobes evenly spread; anthers glabrous

63. Corolla throat floor white; lower stigma lobe 2–3 × upper; calyx in fruit prominently ribbed and inflated, hairy, mouth slightly oblique ..... M. bolanderi

63' Corolla throat floor yellow; stigma lobes equal; calyx in fruit not ribbed or inflated, minutely puberulent, mouth strongly oblique ..... M. johnstonii

62' Upper 2 corolla lobes divergent from lower 3; anthers ciliate

64. Tip of distal leaves sharply acuminate or sharp-tipped ..... M. cusickii

64' Tip of distal leaves acute to rounded ..... M. nanus

65. Leaves and calyces hairy, hairs >= 0.7 mm; corolla tube generally puberulent externally, corolla magenta, dark red-purple, or yellow ..... var. mephiticus

65' Leaves and calyces minutely puberulent, hairs <= 0.3 mm; corolla tube glabrous externally, corolla magenta or lavender-purple

66. Corolla tube-throat 5.5–12 mm; fruit generally 3.5–6 mm ..... var. jepsonii

66' Corolla tube-throat 11–19 mm; fruit generally 6–12 mm ..... var. nanus

61' Stigma including

67. Corolla tube-throat 6–8 mm, limb 3–5 mm wide ..... M. leptaleus

67' Corolla tube-throat 8–34 mm, limb 8–30 mm wide

68. Lower stigma lobe 1.5–2 × upper

69. Corolla yellow; tube-throat glabrous externally ..... M. brevipes

69' Corolla rose-pink to magenta; tube-throat puberulent externally

70. Corolla throat near mouth generally white with red-purple dots (throat all yellow), lower lip bent downward; calyx with wide, dark ribs, occasionally inflated, lobes acute to acuminate ..... M. layneae

70' Lower lip of corolla with 2 distinct conspicuous yellow stripes extending onto base from throat folds, lower lip projecting forward; calyx all pale green, ribs of veins only, not inflated, lobes obtuse ..... M. torreyi

68' Stigma lobes equal

71. Corolla throat floor white at mouth; if corolla mostly yellow, then 3–7 longitudinal maroon-black stripes extend from throat onto lobe base; w slope of s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, n Western Transverse Ranges

72. Calyx inflated, hairy, many hairs > 1 mm; corolla ± pink to red-purple; largest leaves round-toothed distally ..... M. constrictus

72' Calyx not inflated, puberulent, hairs < 0.5 mm; corolla magenta or yellow; leaves all entire ..... M. whitneyi

71' Corolla throat floor yellow at mouth; if corolla yellow overall, then lower lip with 6–8 ± red spots in arc around mouth; high desert

73. Calyx puberulent, hairs < 0.5 mm; upper calyx lobe largest, widely rounded to acute; corolla magenta or yellow ..... M. parryi

73' Calyx hairy, many hairs > 1 mm; calyx lobes ± equal, acuminate to attenuate; corolla magenta ..... M. bigelovii

74. Distal leaf width generally < basal leaves, distal longer tapered than basal; lower stem internodes generally >> others ..... var. bigelovii

74' Distal leaf width generally >= basal leaves, distal generally acute; stem internodes generally ± equal ..... var. cuspidatus

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