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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, gray- or yellow-green, often becoming red-purple, generally much-branched; roots ± yellow.
Leaf: sessile, entire, thread-like to lanceolate or palmately 3–7-lobed, segments narrow.
Inflorescence: short dense spike (subtended by bracts), < 2(5) cm or flowers 1 (each subtended by outer bract); outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx), 0–7-lobed.
Flower: calyx sheath-like, generally divided to base abaxially, partially surrounding corolla tube laterally, tip entire or shallowly notched; corolla club-shaped, tubular proximally, expanded laterally; upper corolla lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downwards forming a hood enclosing anthers, style; lower corolla lip <= upper lip, obscurely 3-lobed, middle lobe tightly rolled under, tip distinctly folded inside-out; fertile stamens (2)4, anther sacs generally 2 per stamen, densely hairy at both ends and ciliate along line of dehiscence, unequal in size and placement; style bent near tip, stigma barely exserted.
Seed: attached at side; seed coat tight-fitting, netted or irregularly striate.
13 species: w North America. (Greek: club-shaped flower) [Tank et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:182–197] Close to Orthocarpus, distinguished by inflorescence, calyx, stamens; generally flowers Jul–Sep. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Chloropyron, Dicranostegia.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105; Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625]
1. Mature corolla generally > 3 × longer than wide; seed netted; especially GB and D in sagebrush or juniper scrub
2. Calyx divided to base; corolla ± dusty yellow, often marked maroon ..... C. ramosus
2' Calyx tube 1–4 mm; corolla generally pink to maroon (± yellow)
3. Fertile stamens 2; calyx divided ± 1/3 — Wrn ..... C. capitatus
3' Fertile stamens 4; calyx shallowly notched
4. Plant canescent, not glandular-sticky; outer bracts 3–7-lobed ..... C. eremicus
5. Outer bracts sparsely scabrous, tips thickened, maroon ..... subsp. eremicus
5' Outer bracts distinctly bristly, tips not thickened, green ..... subsp. kernensis
4' Plant densely glandular-sticky; outer bracts generally 3- or 5-lobed
6. Infl a spike, 2–3 cm; corolla lips ± equal; inner bract pinnately lobed; s MP, SNE ..... C. kingii subsp. helleri
6' Fls solitary, scattered; lower corolla lip << upper; inner bract generally entire; e DMtns ..... C. parviflorus
1' Mature corolla 2–3 × longer than wide; seed finely wavy-striate; especially CA-FP in foothill woodland
7. Outer bracts fan-shaped, shallowly 3–7-lobed; inner bract and calyx tips rough-papillate; corolla 8–9 mm, pouch sides yellow — serpentine, NCoR ..... C. pringlei
7' Outer bracts entire to deeply 3-lobed; inner bract and calyx tips scabrous to puberulent; corolla 10–20 mm, pouch sides ± white
8. Anther sac 1 (+ bearded vestige) per stamen; calyx tube ± 1 mm; outer bracts 3-lobed, < flower — s SNH, TR, PR ..... C. nevinii
8' Anther sacs 2 per stamen; calyx generally divided to base (except Cordylanthus rigidus); outer bracts entire or 3-lobed, generally >= flower
9. Plant ± bristly (except Cordylanthus rigidus subsp. littoralis), hairs generally not glandular; flowers 5–15 in ± dense clusters; calyx tube 1–2 mm; corolla maroon in U-shape on lower side ..... C. rigidus
10. Outer bract < flower, generally 5–10 mm, middle lobe oblong — s SNH ..... subsp. brevibracteatus
10' Outer bract generally > flower, 10–20 mm, middle lobe linear to lanceolate
11. Middle lobe of outer bract linear, tip wider, notched, thickened, maroon, marginal bristles > 2 × lobe width — SCoRO, SW ..... subsp. setigerus
11' Middle lobe of outer bract generally lanceolate or oblong, tip generally not wider, marginal bristles ± = lobe width
12. Plant puberulent or soft-hairy; outer bract weakly ciliate and puberulent, tip of middle lobe tapered; dunes, c&s CCo ..... subsp. littoralis
12' Plant bristly; outer bracts ± scabrous, tip of middle lobe tapered or blunt and notched; especially chaparral, woodland, c&s SN, CW (except n SnFrB), WTR, SnGb ..... subsp. rigidus
9' Plant soft-hairy, becoming glabrous, hairs glandular or not; flowers 1–7 in loose clusters; calyx divided to base; corolla veined, streaked or blotched maroon
13. St decumbent, branches ascending < 15 cm; outer bracts 3-lobed near base — serpentine, ne SnFrB ..... C. nidularius
13' St erect, branches ascending generally > 20 cm; outer bracts entire or 3-lobed in distal 2/3
14. Main stem densely puberulent (partly glandular) and long-soft-hairy; tips of outer bracts (or middle lobes) > 1.5 mm wide, longest hairs 2–3 mm; corolla barely marked maroon ..... C. pilosus
15. Outer bracts entire (tip wider, obtuse to 2-notched); NCoR, n SnFrB ..... subsp. pilosus
15' Outer bracts 3-lobed; CaRF, n&c SNF
16. Outer bracts lobed in distal 1/3, lateral lobes < 3 mm; corolla >= calyx and inner bract ..... subsp. hansenii
16' Outer bracts lobed in proximal 1/2; lateral lobes > 3 mm; corolla < calyx and inner bract ..... subsp. trifidus
14' Main stem ± glabrous to sparsely long-hairy or ± glandular; tips of outer bracts (or middle lobes) < 1.5 mm wide, longest hairs < 2 mm; corolla heavily blotched maroon ..... C. tenuis
17. St glabrous or minutely puberulent; leaves (or lobes) thread-like, tightly folded up, generally ± glabrous; serpentine outcrops — s NCoR
18. Outer bracts entire; stems minutely and sparsely glandular, especially proximal to flowers ..... subsp. brunneus
18' Outer bracts 3-lobed; stems ± glabrous (not glandular proximal to flowers) — sw NCoRO ..... subsp. capillaris
17' St generally puberulent and long-hairy, sometimes glandular; leaves (or lobes) linear to ± oblong, flat to channeled, puberulent and generally glandular; generally not on serpentine
19. Fls 3–7 in dense clusters; outer bracts generally 3-lobed, densely soft-hairy; longest hairs of inner bract > 2 mm; s SNH ..... subsp. barbatus
19' Fls 1–6 in loose clusters; outer bracts entire or 3-lobed, ± stiff-hairy; longest hairs of inner bract < 1 mm
20. Outer bracts entire ..... subsp. tenuis
20' Outer bracts 3-lobed
21. Bracts and calyx yellow-green, puberulent, weakly glandular; flowers generally 3–6 per cluster — CaRH ..... subsp. pallescens
21' Bracts and calyx green or maroon-tinged, glandular, puberulent and with long, stiff hairs; flowers 1–3 per cluster ..... subsp. viscidus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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