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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Michael S. Park & Elizabeth Chase Neese

Annual, often glandular, sometimes brown-staining. Leaf: opposite; proximal petioled. Inflorescence: bracted, often interrupted; flowers 1–many in leaf axils. Flower: calyx lobes 5, generally glabrous on inner surface; corolla ± pea-like, uniformly pale, or generally with pale regions, especially throat and base of upper lip (± uniformly dark in Collinsia greenei), generally glabrous outside, tube short, throat ± angled to tube, ± pouched on upper side, lips generally ± = throat, upper lobes 2, ± reflexed, lower lobes 3, lateral spreading, central lobe keeled, enclosing stamens and style; stamens 4, attached unequally near throat base, spur at base of upper filaments > 1 mm, vestigial, or 0; staminode gland-like; style > 2 mm, stigma minutely 2-lobed. Fruit: septicidal and loculicidal (valves 2-lobed). Seed: generally few, ± oblong, generally plump; inner surface ± concave.
± 20 species: North America, especially California. (Zaccheus Collins, Philadelphia botanist, 1764–1831) Late-season flowers generally atypically small.

Key to Collinsia

1. Corolla ± uniformly dark purple; base of each upper lobe with 2 crested projections bulging > 1 mm away from throat opening ..... C. greenei

1' Corolla uniformly pale, or with pale regions, especially throat and base of upper lip; base of each upper lobe with projection 0 or bulging away < 1 mm away from throat opening

2. Flower whorls dense; proximal pedicels < calyx

3. Upper filaments with curved basal spur 1–2 mm, curved into pouch; corolla throat as wide as long ..... C. heterophylla

4. Corolla 10–15 mm, upper lip < lower lip; leaf (sparsely) hairy abaxially ..... var. austromontana

4' Corolla (13)15–20 mm, lips ± equal; leaf glabrous abaxially (at most ciliate on midvein) ..... var. heterophylla

3' Filaments ± unspurred or spur <= 0.5 mm (except 0.8 mm in Collinsia tinctoria); corolla throat longer than wide

5. Upper corolla lip <= 2/3 lower lip

6. Upper lip 1/2 to 2/3 lower lip; corolla 8–12 mm — leaf glabrous abaxially; c High Sierra Nevada ..... C. bartsiifolia var. stricta

6' Upper lip < 1/2 lower lip; corolla 12–22 mm

7. Leaf glabrous abaxially; inflorescence ± head-like; corolla upper lobes ± 1 mm, dry, ± brown, lateral lobes glabrous, throat barely angled to tube, pouch low; inflorescence sparsely and finely glandular; North Coast ..... C. corymbosa

7' Leaf hairy abaxially; inflorescence generally of several whorls; corolla upper lobes >> 1 mm, red-banded, lateral lobes generally hairy, throat strongly angled to tube, pouch prominent; inflorescence densely glandular, staining; widespread ..... C. tinctoria

5' Corolla lips ± = in fully open flowers

8. Corolla blue to blue-purple, not drying veiny, upper lobes notched, lateral lobes and tip of lowest lobe generally hairy; leaves thin, entire to toothed; South Coast (Riverside Co.), Peninsular Ranges ..... C. concolor

8' Corolla generally white to ± purple, generally drying veiny, upper lobes ± toothed (backs often touching or parallel); leaves ± thick, crenate; widespread ..... C. bartsiifolia (in part)

9. Corolla 15–20 mm ..... var. bartsiifolia

9' Corolla 9–14 mm ..... var. davidsonii

2' Flowers 1 to loosely whorled; proximal pedicels > calyx

10. Leaves generally ± lance-deltate, generally coarsely toothed; proximal-most pedicels >> calyx, distal pedicels ± = calyx — n&c Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area (San Mateo Co.) ..... C. multicolor

10' Leaves linear to ovate or oblong, generally entire, crenate, or finely toothed; all pedicels ± equal

11. Inner face of calyx lobes white-hairy — plants on white shale scree ..... C. antonina

11' Inner face of calyx lobes not hairy

12. Calyx lobe tips sharp to long-tapered

13. Upper filaments, middle lower corolla lobe glabrous; calyx ± = fruit, lobes not widely spreading; seeds plump, oblong, unwinged

14. Corolla 8–15 mm, main lobes generally 2–6 mm wide, obovate, throat strongly angled to tube ..... C. grandiflora

14' Corolla 4–8 mm, main lobes ± 1 mm wide, oblong, throat barely angled to tube ..... C. parviflora

13' Upper filaments, middle lower corolla lobe sparsely long-hairy near tip; calyx generally >> fruit, lobes widely spreading in fruit; seeds flat, ± round, ± winged — fruit generally red-blotched ..... C. sparsiflora

15. Corolla 5–8 mm, throat barely angled to tube, pouch hidden by calyx ..... var. collina

15' Corolla 7–20 mm, throat strongly angled to tube, pouch generally evident to prominent ..... var. sparsiflora

12' Calyx lobe tips ± blunt

16. Inflorescence ± glandless ..... C. parryi

16' Inflorescence conspicuously glandular

17. Pedicels spreading to ascending in fruit; distal-most bracts > 2 mm

18. Middle and distal leaves oblong to ovate to (ob)lanceolate, generally < 6 × longer than wide

19. Plant fleshy; distal leaves clasping; seeds 6–8, ± 2 mm; calyx ± = fruit ..... C. callosa

19' Plant not fleshy; distal leaf bases tapered; seeds 2, ± 3 mm; calyx > fruit ..... C. childii

18' Middle and distal leaves ± linear, generally > 6 × longer than wide

20. Corolla generally 8–12(15) mm, >> 2 × calyx, throat strongly angled to tube, pouch prominent ..... C. linearis

20' Corolla 4–8 mm, generally < 2 × calyx, throat barely angled to tube, pouch ± hidden by calyx ..... C. rattanii

17' Some pedicels strongly reflexed in fruit; distal-most bracts 0–2 mm ..... C. torreyi

21. Lateral corolla lobes exceeding lowest by 1–2 mm

22. Corolla generally 6–9 mm ..... var. brevicarinata

22' Corolla generally 4–6 mm ..... var. wrightii

21' Lateral corolla lobes exceeding lowest by << 1 mm, or not exceeding it

23. Leaves elliptic to ovate, generally 2–5 × longer than wide ..... var. latifolia

23' Leaves ± linear; generally > 6 × longer than wide ..... var. torreyi


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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