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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets. Leaf: basal and cauline, reduced distally on stem, generally alternate, increasingly more deeply lobed from younger basal to distal cauline; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0. Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, 3-beaked, valves 3.
12 species: western North America. (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats) [Kuzoff et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:598–615]
Unabridged references: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Unabridged note: Generic names ending in -phragma are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.

Key to Lithophragma

1. Cauline leaves 2, opposite ..... L. cymbalaria

1' Cauline leaves >= 1, alternate

2. Hypanthium long-obconic, base acutely tapered to pedicel; ovary > 1/2-inferior

3. Basal leaves lobed ± 1/2 or less to base; most proximal cauline leaf 3-lobed; petals white ..... L. affine

3' Basal leaves deeply lobed (> 3/4 to base) to 3-parted; most proximal cauline leaf 3-parted; petals white or pink ..... L. parviflorum

4. Hypanthium ± 2 × longer than wide; flower not fragrant; petals white or pink ..... var. parviflorum

4' Hypanthium 3–4 × longer than wide; flower fragrant; petals pink ..... var. trifoliatum

2' Hypanthium hemispheric to bell-shaped, base truncate, rounded, or obtusely tapered to pedicel; ovary superior or < 1/2-inferior

5. Basal leaves 3-parted or deeply 3-lobed (> 1/2 to base); petals white or pink

6. Plant 40–60 cm; petals white; s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... L. maximum

6' Plant 8–30 cm; petals pink, occasionally white; mainland

7. Petal lobes deep, 3–5; inflorescence often with bulblets in axils of proximal bracts; seed spiny ..... L. glabrum

7' Petal lobes shallow, generally 5–7; inflorescence without bulblets; seed smooth ..... L. tenellum

5' Basal leaves ± shallowly lobed (< 1/2 to base); petals white

8. Petals obovate, lobes 3; hypanthium bell-shaped, base truncate; inflorescence often with bulblets in axils of distal bracts ..... L. heterophyllum

8' Petals ovate-elliptic, entire or lobes > 3; hypanthium hemispheric to bell-shaped, base obtusely tapered to round; inflorescence bulblets generally 0

9. Petals spreading, entire or ± lobed, lobes ± equal (sometimes tooth-like); hypanthium hemispheric; ovary < 1/2-inferior; leaf teeth ± round ..... L. bolanderi

9' Petals ± erect, ± lobed, lobes ± unequal (becoming smaller and tooth-like near base); hypanthium broadly bell-shaped; ovary superior; leaf teeth ± sharp ..... L. campanulatum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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