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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Lawrence A. Alice

Generally shrub; (dioecious). Stem: persisting 1–2 years, rooting at tips and/or nodes or not, erect or arched to mounded or prostrate, 5-angled or not, hairy or glabrous, glaucous or not, stalked glands present or not; bristles or prickles 0–many, prickles stout and wide-based or weak and slender, straight or curved. Leaf: simple, palmately lobed, to palmately compound, leaflets 3 or 5(11), toothed, abaxially ± glabrous to densely hairy; stipules thread-like to ovate or elliptic. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like cyme, axillary or terminal; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: generally bisexual; hypanthium flat to saucer-shaped, bractlets 0; sepals persistent, reflexed to ascending, ovate or lance-ovate, hairy or glabrous, stalked or sessile glands present or not, tip pointed, prickly or not; petals widely obovate, spoon-shaped, or elliptic, white to ± pink or magenta; stamens generally >> 20, filaments thread- or strap-like; pistils 5–150, receptacle flat or convex to conical, spongy, generally elongated in fruit, ovaries superior, hairy or glabrous, styles long, slender or short, thick, glabrous or hairy; ovules 2, 1 maturing. Fruit: fleshy-coated achenes, aggregate of few to many, yellow, orange, red, or black, generally falling as unit, separating with (blackberry-type) or without (raspberry-type) receptacle attached.
400–750 species: worldwide except Antarctica, especially northern temperate. (Latin: red; ancient name for bramble, blackberry)
Unabridged references: [Alice & Campbell 1999 Amer J Bot 86:81–97]

Key to Rubus

1. Stipules triangular-lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 1.5–4(10) mm wide

2. Prickles small, ± wide-based, curved ..... R. nivalis

2' Prickles 0

3. Stems prostrate; leaf blade < 4 cm; pistils < 15; styles long, slender ..... R. lasiococcus

3' Stems erect; leaf blade > 5 cm; pistils > 30; styles short, thick ..... R. parviflorus

1' Stipules thread-like to linear, <= 1 mm wide

4. Stems not angled; flowers generally <= 10; fruit raspberry-type (blackberry-type in Rubus ursinus)

5. Stems erect, not glaucous; petals magenta ..... R. spectabilis

5' Stems prostrate to decumbent or arched to mounded, glaucous; petals white or ± pink

6. Leaves gray-hairy abaxially; flowers generally unisexual; ovaries glabrous or hairy ..... R. ursinus

6' Leaves densely white-tomentose abaxially; flowers bisexual; ovaries densely hairy

7. Prickles weak, straight or ± curved; pistils < 10 ..... R. glaucifolius

7' Prickles stout, straight or generally curved; pistils generally > 30 ..... R. leucodermis

4' Stems 5-angled; flowers generally >= 10 (as few as 5 in Rubus pensilvanicus); fruit blackberry-type

8. Prickles 0 ..... R. ulmifolius var. anoplothyrsus

8' Prickles many, stout, wide-based

9. Leaves compound, leaflets deeply dissected ..... R. laciniatus

9' Leaves simple or compound, leaflets 0 or not dissected

10. Leaves gray-hairy abaxially; inflorescence a raceme-like cyme ..... R. pensilvanicus

10' Leaves densely white-tomentose abaxially; inflorescence a panicle-like cyme

11. Stems not glaucous; terminal leaflets of 1st-yr stems generally wide-elliptic to -obovate, unevenly coarse-toothed ..... R. armeniacus

11' Stems glaucous; terminal leaflets of 1st-yr stems oblong to narrow-obovate, evenly finely toothed ..... R. ulmifolius var. ulmifolius


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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