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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub to vine, often thicket-forming, generally prickly. Leaf: generally odd-pinnately compound; stipules generally attached to petiole, generally gland-margined. Inflorescence: generally ± cyme or flowers 1; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium urn-shaped, bractlets 0; sepals often with long expanded tip; petals generally 5 (except cultivated), generally pink in California (white to red or yellow); stamens generally > 20; pistils generally many, ovaries superior, styles attached at tip, generally hairy. Fruit: bony achenes generally enclosed in fleshy, generally ± red hypanthium (hip).
100+ species: generally northern temperate. (Latin: ancient name) [Ertter & Lewis 2008 Madroño 55:170–177] Species hybridize freely; other non-natives established locally. FNANM treatment by Lewis & Ertter uses both subspecies and varieties, the latter mostly reserved for localized variants within a subsp.
Unabridged references: [Lewis & Ertter 2007 Novon 17:342–353]
1. Leaflets << 1 cm, toothed ± 1/2 to base; hypanthium densely prickly — Peninsular Ranges ..... R. minutifolia
1' Leaflets generally > 1 cm, toothed < 1/4 to base; hypanthium glabrous to stalked-glandular
2. Sepals with toothed lateral lobes; prickles compressed side-to-side, curved
3. Hypanthium 1–2 mm wide at flower, 5–7 mm wide at fruit; pistils generally < 10 ..... R. multiflora
3' Hypanthium 4–5 mm wide at flower, 10–20 mm wide at fruit; pistils > 10
4. Leaves and sepals ± glandless; petals white to pink; terminal leaflet ± ovate ..... R. canina
4' Leaves and sepals glandular; petals pink; terminal leaflet generally elliptic to ± widely obovate ..... R. rubiginosa
2' Sepals generally entire (tip sometimes toothed); prickles compressed or slender, straight or curved
5. Sepals deciduous in fruit; hypanthium 1.5–2 mm wide at flower; pistils 5–10; sepal tip generally << body; petals ± 10 mm — leaflets glabrous, flowers 1–3; pedicels generally stalked-glandular ..... R. gymnocarpa
6. Leaflets generally (5)7–9; terminal leaflet tip generally ± obtuse, ± 10–30 mm; pedicels ± 15–30 mm; plants to ± 5–20 dm, generally in shade on non-ultramafic substrates; widespread ..... var. gymnocarpa
6' Leaflets generally 5(7); terminal leaflet tip widely obtuse to rounded, 4–20 mm; pedicels ± 10–15 mm; plants to generally 3–6 dm, full sun on ultramafic substrates; Klamath Ranges ..... var. serpentina
5' Sepals persistent; hypanthium 2.5–7 mm wide at flower; pistils generally > 10; sepal tip ± = or often > body; petals 10–25 mm
7. Dwarf, openly rhizomed shrubs, generally 1–5(10) dm; leaflet tip often ± truncate — leaf margins generally ± glandular, generally double-toothed
8. Hypanthium stalked-glandular — prickles generally ± slender, often many; Northwestern California, Central Western California, Modoc Plateau(1 site), 150–1550(1950) m ..... R. spithamea
8' Hypanthium generally glandless, rarely sparsely glandular
9. Prickles few, paired, ± thick-based; terminal leaflet generally widely obovate; flower 1–2(7); Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, 700–2500 m ..... R. bridgesii
9' Prickles generally many, generally not paired, both slender and ± thick-based; terminal leaflet generally ± elliptic; flowers generally 1–5; Central Western California, generally < 300 m ..... R. pinetorum
7' Open or thicket-forming shrubs, generally > 5 dm; leaflet tip not truncate
10. Terminal leaflet ± obovate-elliptic, widest at or above middle; leaf axis finely velvety, hairs ± 0.1 mm (glabrous), glandless; prickles slender to ± thick-based, generally ± straight; sepals glandless (in California); High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... R. woodsii
11. Prickles generally many, 2–10(13) mm, often ± thick-based, internodal prickles generally present in inflorescence; c&s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... subsp. gratissima
11' Prickes few to many, 2–7 mm, slender, internodal prickles generally 0 in inflorescence; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. ultramontana
10' Terminal leaflet generally ovate to elliptic, generally widest at or below middle; leaf axis variously hairy, hairs to 1 mm, sometimes glandular; prickles generally ± thick-based, often curved; sepals often glandular; California Floristic Province, adjacent Mojave Desert
12. Flowers generally 1(6); hypanthium generally 5–7 mm wide at flower, (10)13–20 mm wide at fruit, generally ± spheric; achenes generally 4.5–6 mm — prickles to 20 mm, generally ± compressed, ± straight to ± curved; sepal tips generally > body, toothed ..... R. nutkana
13. Leaflets generally ± single-toothed, generally glandless; prickles generally few; Outer North Coast Ranges, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range; 750–1500 m ..... subsp. macdougalii
13' Leaflets double-toothed, ± glandular especially beneath; prickles generally many; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast; < 700 m ..... subsp. nutkana
12' Flowers 1–many; hypanthium 2.5–5.5 mm wide at flower, 7–15(20) mm wide at fruit, spheric to (ob)ovoid; achenes 3–5 mm
14. Prickles generally thick-based, generally curved (straight), few to many; leaflets and leaf axis generally ± shaggy-hairy, hairs to 1 mm; pedicel generally ± hairy; hypanthium generally (ob)ovoid, glabrous to sparsely hairy, neck 2–4.5 mm wide at flower ..... R. californica
14' Prickles slender to ± thick-based, straight (± curved), 0–few; leaflets and leaf axis ± glabrous to ± hairy, hairs 0.1–1 mm; pedicels generally glabrous (except for glands); hypanthium spheric to ovoid, glabrous, neck ± 2 mm wide at flower ..... R. pisocarpa
15. Flowers 1–3(10); sepals generally glandless; prickles 0 to paired at nodes; leaflets generally 5(7) ..... subsp. ahartii
15' Flowers (1)3–10; sepals generally glandular; prickles generally paired at nodes; leaflets generally (5)7(9) ..... subsp. pisocarpa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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