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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

POTENTILLA CINQUEFOIL

Barbara Ertter


Annual to perennial herb; odor generally 0. Leaf: generally basal, odd-1-pinnately, 1-palmately, or 1-ternately compound; leaflets 1–8(13) per side, ± toothed, generally ± separated, terminal generally ± = lateral; margins generally flat. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally ± open; pedicels generally ± straight, bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium ± shallow, bractlets generally 5, generally < sepals, generally flat; sepals ± triangular; petals (2)4–20 mm, >= sepals, generally ± widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens 10–25; pistils generally > 10, ovaries superior, styles slender to ± tapering, generally attached near fruit tip. Fruit: achene, generally glabrous.
± 400 species: mostly northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: diminutive of powerful, for reputed medicinal value) Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Comarum, Dasiphora, Drymocallis.

Key to Potentilla

1. Flowers 1, arising from axils of slender stolons

2. Leaf palmate ..... P. anglica

2' Leaf pinnate ..... P. anserina

3. Leaf 3–15 cm, generally densely hairy adaxially; pedicel generally 2–7 cm; 1200–2600 m; High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... subsp. anserina

3' Leaf 3–50(75) cm, ± glabrous adaxially; pedicel generally 5–30 cm; generally < 150 m; North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast ..... subsp. pacifica

1' Flowers in cymes; stolons 0

4. Styles < or ± 1 mm, tapered from rough-thickened base to tip; petals variable

5. Perennial herb; basal leaves generally present in flower; leaflet margins ± rolled under; rocky alpine barrens and meadows, > 2700 m

6. Leaf ± palmate; leaflets ± 5, toothed > 3/4 to midvein ..... P. pseudosericea

6' Leaf ± pinnate; leaflets generally 5–13, toothed ± 3/4 to midvein

7. Leaflets generally 2–3 per side; petiole generally ± = blade; hypanthium bractlets < sepals, flat ..... P. jepsonii

7' Leaflets 3–6 per side; petiole generally < blade; hypanthium bractlets generally ± = sepals, margins ± rolled-up ..... P. pensylvanica

5' Annual or biennial (to short-lived perennial herb); basal leaves often withered or fallen in flower; leaflet margins flat; generally moist or disturbed areas, < 3100 m

8. Leaf pinnate, leaflets 9–17; petals > sepals, cream, ± obcordate — leaflets toothed > 1/2 to midvein; Modoc Plateau ..... P. newberryi (2)

8' Leaf ternate or ± palmate, leaflets 3–7; petals < sepals (except Potentilla recta), yellow (occasionally fading white), generally elliptic to obovate

9. St-base hairs generally ± dense, glandular or not, < 1 mm, spreading or not; petals <= 2.5 mm; hypanthium generally 2–4 mm wide; fruit smooth, < 1 mm, ± white or light brown

10. Stem hairs glandular and not; leaflets 3, ± obovate; petals oblanceolate-elliptic ..... P. biennis

10' Stem hairs glandless; leaflets 3–5, oblanceolate to elliptic; petals obovate-elliptic ..... P. rivalis

9' St-base hairs sparse, glandless, < 2 mm, spreading; petals >= 3 mm; hypanthium 3–10 mm wide; fruit veined, ± 1–1.5 mm, ± brown

11. Leaflets generally 3; petals 3–4 mm; anthers ± 0.3 mm; annual to short-lived perennial herb ..... P. norvegica

11' Leaflets generally 6–7; petals 6–9 mm; anthers ± 1 mm; short-lived perennial herb ..... P. recta (2)

4' Styles >= 1 mm, ± slender (except Potentilla recta); petals ± obcordate, > sepals

12. Leaflets 3; inflorescence generally < 7-flowered (see also Fragaria, Sibbaldia)

13. Leaflets secondarily lobed as well as toothed ± 1/2 to base, sparsely hairy; styles ± rough-thickened at base; Klamath Ranges ..... P. cristae

13' Leaflets only toothed, not secondarily lobed, ± nonglandular; styles slender throughout; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada

14. Teeth of central leaflet generally 7–15, generally uneven, ± 1/4 to midvein; pedicel 10–20 mm; pistils > ± 20; stem ± glabrous or sparsely spreading-hairy; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada ..... P. flabellifolia

14' Teeth of central leaflet ± 7, even, 1/4–1/2 to midvein; pedicel 10–40 mm; pistils < ± 20; stem sparsely strigose; High Sierra Nevada ..... P. grayi

12' Leaflets > 3; inflorescence generally > 7-flowered (except Potentilla hickmanii)

15. Leaf pinnate to subpalmate (see also Horkelia, Horkeliella, Ivesia)

16. Annual to short-lived perennial herb; petals cream; style 1–1.5 mm; fruit veined — receding shorelines; Modoc Plateau ..... P. newberryi (2)

16' Perennial herb; petals yellow; style generally > 1.5 mm; fruit generally smooth

17. Leaf densely white-tomentose abaxially, ± green and strigose adaxially; style ± 1.5–2 mm — alpine barrens; c High Sierra Nevada, n White and Inyo Mountains ..... P. morefieldii

17' Leaf hairs ± similar adaxially and abaxially (but hairs often denser abaxially); style 2–3.5 mm

18. Basal leaf < 1/2 stem; pedicel ± straight in fruit; 1100–3700 m

19. Petiole generally < blade, cottony-hairy; leaflets 3–7 per side, ± overlapped, palmately toothed > 1/2 to midvein — generally cottony-hairy throughout ..... P. breweri

19' Petiole generally > blade, glabrous to shaggy-hairy; leaflets generally 2–4 per side, occasionally separated, pinnately toothed ± 1/2 to midvein, occasionally split to base

20. Leaflets generally gray-hairy, ± overlapped; petiole generally dense-shaggy- or cottony-hairy ..... P. bruceae (2)

20' Leaflets generally green, glabrous to ± straight-hairy, generally separated; petiole glabrous or strigose ..... P. drummondii

18' Basal leaf generally > 1/2 stem; pedicel generally ± recurved in fruit; < 2000 m

21. Leaflets entire or 2–3-toothed or lobed > 1/2 to midvein, larger 5–10 mm — Modoc Plateau ..... P. basaltica

21' Leaflets 2–10-toothed ± 1/2 or more to midvein, larger 5–22 mm

22. Leaflets 5–13 per side, 3–10(15)-toothed 2/3 to nearly to midvein; pistils ± 10–30; inland

23. Stem 5–20 cm; leaf 2–15 cm, petiole generally < blade; High Cascade Range, ne-most High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; 900–2000 m ..... P. millefolia

23' Stem 25–50 cm; leaf 15–32 cm, petiole generally ± = blade; s Outer North Coast Ranges/San Francisco Bay Area; 30–40 m ..... P. uliginosa

22' Leaflets 3–8 per side, 2–6 toothed ± 1/2–2/3 (rarely more) to midvein; pistils (2)5–15; coastal

24. Lateral leaflets toothed 1/2–2/3 (rarely more) to midvein; stem 5–25 cm; c Central Coast ..... P. hickmanii

24' Lateral leaflets toothed ± 1/2 to midvein; stem 20–50(70) cm; c South Coast ..... P. multijuga

15' Leaf (sub)palmate

25. Stem ± prostrate or hanging, generally <= 25 cm; pedicels generally ± recurved in fruit; leaflet teeth < 11 — > 1800 m, s California Floristic Province, n White and Inyo Mountains

26. Leaflets white-tomentose abaxially, ± green and strigose adaxially; n White and Inyo Mountains ..... P. concinna var. proxima

26' Leaflet surfaces ± equally strigose; s California Floristic Province

27. Plant hanging from granite crevices; pistils generally 5–20; fruit ± smooth; pedicels generally > 15 mm; San Jacinto Mountains ..... P. rimicola

27' Plant rosetted to tufted in sandy soil; pistils generally > 15; fruit ± veined; pedicels generally < 15 mm; s High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains ..... P. wheeleri

25' Stem ± ascending to erect, generally 10–100 cm; pedicels ± straight; leaflet teeth often > 10

28. Leaflets distally 3–7(9)-toothed, glabrous (except margins, veins), glaucous (at least when fresh) ..... P. glaucophylla var. glaucophylla

28' Leaflets evenly 7–35-toothed, generally ± hairy, green to white

29. Leaflets toothed > 3/4 to midvein; stem and petiole hairs generally appressed

30. Longest petiole generally 5–10 cm; central leaflet 2–6 cm, teeth often narrowest at base, entire; petals 5–8 mm; High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada ..... P. gracilis var. elmeri

30' Longest petiole generally 10–25 cm; central leaflet 5–9 cm, teeth generally widest at base, often secondarily few-toothed; petals 7–10 mm; Modoc Plateau ..... P. gracilis var. flabelliformis

29' Leaflets toothed ± 1/2 or less to midvein; stem and petiole hairs spreading to appressed

31. Stem (and petioles) shaggy- to cottony-hairy; leaves often subpalmate, leaflets often irregularly deeply lobed as well as toothed ..... P. bruceae (2)

31' Stem (and petioles) straight-hairy; leaves palmate, leaflets regularly toothed

32. Leaf surfaces strongly contrasting, ± white-tomentose abaxially, green, sparsely hairy adaxially; stem hairs generally spreading

33. Glands generally 0 or hidden; nw Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range; 120–1100 m ..... P. gracilis var. gracilis

33' Glands generally abundant; n White and Inyo Mountains, 3000–3100 m ..... P. pulcherrima

32' Leaf surfaces similarly hairy, generally not white tomentose abaxially; stem hairs appressed to spreading

34. Basal leaves generally prominent in flower; stem hairs of 1 length; fruit ± smooth; styles generally 1.5–2 mm, < 50 ..... P. gracilis var. fastigiata

34' Basal leaves generally fallen or withered in flower; stem hairs short- and long-spreading; fruit strong-veined; styles ± 1 mm, generally > 50 ..... P. recta (2)

Contact/Feedback

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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