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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

HORKELIA

Barbara Ertter


Perennial herb, generally ± glandular, generally resinous-smelling; caudex generally branched. Stem: generally ascending to erect. Leaf: generally basal, odd-1-pinnately compound, generally ± flat; cauline alternate, reduced upward; leaflets 2–15 per side, uppermost lateral generally ± fused with terminal. Inflorescence: cyme; pedicels generally straight, bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium cup-like, ± flat-bottomed, width ± 2 × length, bractlets 5, generally 2/3 sepals; sepals often reflexed; petals generally ± = sepal, blunt, white; stamens 10, filaments ± flat, often forming a tube; pistils 2–many, ovary superior, style attached below fruit tip, ± thicker at base. Fruit: achene.
20 species: western North America. (J. Horkel, German plant physiologist, 1769–1846) [Ertter & Reveal 2007 Novon 17:315–325] Many attractive to bees; data apply to basal leaves, pressed hypanthia.

Key to Horkelia

1. Flowers generally in head-like clusters; plant generally rosetted or tufted; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada — hypanthium bractlets < 0.5 mm wide; hypanthium generally 2–5 mm wide; lower pedicel often reflexed in fruit; > 300 m

2. Leaflets 2–5 per side, entire to ± 3-toothed; petal linear to obovate; fruit 1.5–2 mm; 300–2500 m

3. Stem densely glandular above, ascending to erect; petal generally 2.5–4 mm, generally widely obovate — nw Klamath Ranges ..... H. congesta var. nemorosa

3' Stem ± glabrous to sparsely glandular above, often decumbent; petal 1.5–4 mm, linear to widely oblanceolate ..... H. tridentata

4. Petal ± widely oblanceolate, often < sepal; hypanthium 2.5–5 mm wide, inner wall hairy (except in High North Coast Ranges); Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada ..... var. flavescens

4' Petal generally narrow-oblanceolate, generally >= sepal; hypanthium generally 2–3.5 mm wide, inner wall generally glabrous; Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. tridentata

2' Leaflets 3–15 per side, > 3-toothed; petal ± wedge-shaped; fruit 1–1.8 mm; > 950 m ..... H. fusca

5. Leaflets generally divided ± 3/4 to base, generally 8–15 per side, ± crowded; filament generally < 0.5 mm, generally wider than long — s High Cascade Range ..... var. tenella (2)

5' Leaflets generally toothed <= 1/2 to base, generally 4–8 per side, ± separated; filament often > 0.5 mm, generally longer than wide

6. Petal 4–6 mm; leaflets generally 10–20 mm, toothed < 1/4 to base, generally ± obovate; anther ± 0.6 mm; style 1–1.5 mm; fruit ± 1.8 mm; Warner Mountains ..... var. pseudocapitata

6' Petal 2–4 mm; leaflets generally 5–15 mm, toothed 1/4–1/2 to base, ± round to wedge-shaped; anther ± 0.4 mm; style ± 1 mm; fruit 1–1.2 mm; n California (except Warner Mountains), High Sierra Nevada

7. Leaflets ± gray-hairy, narrow-wedge-shaped; Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... var. brownii

7' Leaflets green, wedge-shaped to round; e Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. parviflora

1' Flowers generally either in ± flat-topped clusters or inflorescence open; plant often matted; California Floristic Province, White and Inyo Mountains

8. Pedicel ± recurved in fruit; inflorescence open, often ± 1-sided

9. Petal 4–7 mm; leaflets toothed 1/4 to midrib; pistils generally 20–50; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills (especially Ione Formation) ..... H. parryi

9' Petal 2–3 mm; leaflets lobed 1/2 to 3/4 to base; pistils < 5; San Bernardino Mountains ..... H. wilderae

8' Pedicel erect in fruit; inflorescence open or dense, not 1-sided

10. Filament generally < 0.5 mm, generally wider than long; style ± 1 mm — petal ± wedge-shaped; s High Cascade Range ..... H. fusca var. tenella (2)

10' Filament >= 0.5 mm, generally longer than wide; style 1–4 mm

11. Plant generally rosetted from simple or few-branched caudex; resinous odor weak; leaflets generally < 10-lobed; fruit >= 2 mm; often ± serpentine clay

12. Leaflets 5–10 per side, 5–25 mm, lobed > 3/4 to base; stem base hairs 2–3 mm; inflorescence open to dense; hypanthium 3.5–5 mm wide; petal ± obovate, cream; pistils 5–15; style 2.5–4 mm ..... H. daucifolia

13. Leaflets ± gray, lobes 2–5, 1–3 mm wide; petal 2–4 mm wide; pedicels nonglandular ..... var. daucifolia

13' Leaflets green, lobes 5–15, < 1 mm wide; petal 4–8 mm wide; pedicels glandular ..... var. indicta

12' Leaflets ± 15 per side, 2–10 mm, generally lobed ± 1/2 to base; stem base hairs ± 1 mm; inflorescence open; hypanthium 2–3 mm wide; petal obcordate, often pink-tinged; pistils 2–6; style ± 1.5–2 mm

14. Stipules of basal leaves pinnately divided; leaves ± green, 5–15 cm ..... H. howellii

14' Stipules of basal leaves entire or forked; leaves silvery, 3–10 cm ..... H. sericata

11' Plant generally tufted to matted from a few- to many-branched caudex; resinous odor strong; leaflets often > 10-toothed or -lobed; fruit often < 2 mm; generally non-serpentine

15. Leaflets pinnately veined, oblong to obovate, ± evenly > 10-toothed — hypanthium width 4–8 mm, > 2 × length, bractlets ± 2–3 mm wide; Central Western California, Southwestern California

16. Leaflets 1–3 per side, < distinct terminal leaflet, teeth generally double, generally > 20; petal ± round, ± 5 mm wide; 400–1300 m; Peninsular Ranges ..... H. truncata

16' Leaflets 5–12 per side, ± = generally indistinct terminal leaflet, teeth generally single, ± 10–15; petal obovate or narrower, 1.5–4 mm wide; < 870 m; Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast ..... H. cuneata

17. Hairs ± all glandular; inflorescence open; hypanthium inner rim ± glabrous; filament base generally 0.5–2 mm wide ..... var. puberula

17' Hairs mostly glandless; inflorescence open to dense; hypanthium inner rim generally hairy; filament base 0.5–1 mm wide

18. Inflorescence generally ± open; hairs ± spreading, ± dense; glands ± obvious ..... var. cuneata

18' Inflorescence dense to ± open; hairs ascending to appressed, dense; glands hidden, if any ..... var. sericea

15' Leaflets ± palmately veined at base, wedge-shaped or ± round-ovate, ± unevenly few- to many-toothed or -lobed

19. Hypanthium width 4–10 mm, 1–2 × length, bractlets ovate, generally ± 2 mm wide, ± = sepal; leaflets round to ovate, 5–60 mm, generally ± separated, generally > 20-toothed or -lobed; stem ± leafy; fruit ± 1 mm ..... H. californica

20. Leaflets 3–5 per side, generally unlobed, 15–60 mm, elliptic to ovate — hypanthium inner wall glabrous; sepal not red-mottled; style 2–3 mm; Central Western California ..... var. frondosa

20' Leaflets 4–9 per side, ± lobed, 5–40 mm, ovate to round

21. Leaflets generally few-lobed ± 1/2 to base, 10–40 mm; sepal red-mottled inside; hypanthium bractlets generally toothed; hypanthium inner wall ± hairy; filament generally 1.5–3 mm; style generally 3–4 mm; North Coast, Central Coast ..... var. californica

21' Leaflets lobed 1/2–3/4 to base, 5–25 mm; sepal not red-mottled; hypanthium bractlets generally entire; hypanthium inner wall glabrous; filament generally 0.5–1.5 mm; style generally 2–3 mm; North Coast Ranges, c&s Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. elata

19' Hypanthium width generally < 6 mm, generally 2+ × length, bractlets lanceolate to ovate, <= 2 mm wide, < sepal; leaflets round to wedge-shaped, generally < 15 mm, often crowded, < 20-toothed or -lobed; stem leaves few, ± reduced; fruit > 1 mm

22. Stem < 25 cm; hypanthium bractlets generally < 0.5 mm wide; leaves 2–10 cm; fruit 1.5–2.5 mm; > 2000 m; Klamath Ranges, s High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains

23. Hypanthium densely hairy on inner rim; sepal 3.5–6 mm, 2+ × hypanthium length; longer hairs ± 1 mm, soft — ne Klamath Ranges ..... H. hendersonii

23' Hypanthium ± hairy on inner wall; sepal generally 2–4 mm, < 2 × hypanthium length; longer hairs ± 0.5 mm, stiff

24. Leaflets generally 10–14 per side, generally 2.5–4 mm; pistils 10–20; White and Inyo Mountains ..... H. hispidula

24' Leaflets generally 4–6 per side, generally 3.5–8 mm; pistils 5–12; s High Sierra Nevada ..... H. tularensis

22' Stem 10–70 cm; hypanthium bractlets generally >= 0.5 mm wide; leaves 3–20 cm; fruit 1.5–2 mm; < 2800 m; North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, Southwestern California

25. Stem decumbent to ascending, generally 10–30 cm; plant matted, odor strong; inflorescence ± dense; leaves generally 4–10 cm; leaflets generally 5–10 per side, ± crowded — hairs dense; North Coast, Central Coast ..... H. marinensis

25' Stem ascending to erect, 10–70 cm; plant tufted or matted, odor strong or not; inflorescence generally ± open; leaves generally 3–20 cm; leaflets 6–16 per side, separated or crowded

26. Hypanthium bractlets 1–2 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate; anther ± 1 mm — hypanthium generally 3–6 mm wide; stem hairs spreading; Outer South Coast Ranges ..... H. yadonii

26' Hypanthium bractlets generally 0.5–1 mm wide, linear or elliptic to lanceolate; anther 0.5–1 mm

27. Stem and petiole hairs generally spreading; plant often green

28. Leaflets toothed ± 1/3 to base; hypanthium inner wall glabrous; Peninsular Ranges ..... H. clevelandii var. clevelandii

28' Leaflets divided > 1/2 to base, lobes linear to oblanceolate; hypanthium inner wall ± hairy; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area ..... H. tenuiloba

27' Stem and petiole hairs generally ascending to appressed; plant generally ± gray — hypanthium inner wall ± hairy

29. Leaf 3–8 cm; pistils generally 10–20; style 1–2 mm; Inner North Coast Ranges ..... H. bolanderi

29' Leaf 4–20 cm; pistils generally 20–50; style generally 2–3 mm; Transverse Ranges ..... H. rydbergii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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