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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ERIOGONUM WILD BUCKWHEAT
Annual to shrub, matted or not. Stem: prostrate to erect, occasionally 0, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular. Leaf: basal, sheathing (on stem above basal, beneath other, ± non-sheathing cauline), or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled; blades linear to ± round, generally longer than wide, margins flat, wavy, or rolled under; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: variable, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular; peduncles 0 or erect to reflexed (pointed down); involucres 1 or in clusters, tubular, glabrous or hairy, teeth generally 4–10, awns 0. Flower: (2)6–100(200), with a stalk-like base ("flower stipe" or "stipe") or not; perianth generally white to red or yellow, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular, lobes 6, generally entire; stamens 9. Fruit: generally brown or black, generally obconic, glabrous or hairy; embryo curved or straight.
± 250 species: temperate North America. (Greek: woolly knees, for hairy nodes of 1st sp. named) {hort link} One of largest genera in California; stem in descriptions refers to the main stem(s), not branches of inflorescence. A perennial herb allied to Eriogonum austrinum (S. Stokes) Reveal and Eriogonum moranii Reveal of east-central Baja California, with spreading (rather than reflexed or erect) involucres on peduncles < 2 mm, occurring in Desert Mountains (Bristol, Granite mountains), has been known for nearly 25 years yet remains undescribed. Eriogonum puberulum moved to Johanneshowellia.

Key to Eriogonum

Key to Groups

1. Annual (except Eriogonum inflatum, perennial herb, keyed in Group 2 when flowering 1st year)

2. Involucres angled to strongly ribbed, sessile and strongly appressed or at tips of short bracted branchlets (or peduncled) (subg. Oregonium) ..... Group 1

2' Involucres smooth, not ribbed or angled, generally peduncled, if sessile then not appressed (subg. Ganysma) ..... Group 2

1' Perennial herb

3. Flower stipe present, sometimes weakly so, not winged; inflorescence bracts 2–13+ (subg. Oligogonum) ..... Group 3

3' Flower stipe 0 or ± winged; inflorescence bracts generally 3 (mainly subg. Eucycla) ..... Group 4

Group 1: Annual; involucres angled to strongly ribbed, sessile and strongly appressed or at tips of short bracted branchlets (or peduncled) (subg. Oregonium)

1. Involucres at tips of slender branchlets, not appressed; peduncles present or 0

2. Flowers 0.7–1.5 mm, yellow or cream; n East of Sierra Nevada, w Mojave Desert

3. Flowers cream to ± red, 1–1.5 mm; inflorescence 5–10(15) cm wide; n East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. ampullaceum

3' Flowers yellow, 0.7–1 mm; inflorescence 5–20 cm wide; w Mojave Desert ..... E. mohavense

2' Flowers 1–2.5(3) mm, yellow or white to pink, rose, or red

4. Stem glabrous; involucres sessile

5. Basal leaf blades oblong-ovate; involucres 3–4 mm, 5-toothed; c Inner North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast, n San Francisco Bay Area ..... E. luteolum var. caninum

5' Basal leaf blades generally round to reniform; involucres 2–4 mm, 5–8-toothed; c&s Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges

6. Involucres 2–2.5 mm, 5-toothed; flowers 2–2.5(3) mm, minutely puberulent, white to rose or yellow in fruit; c&s Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. covilleanum

6' Involucres 3–4 mm, 6–8-toothed; flowers 1–2 mm, glabrous, white to rose; n South Coast Ranges ..... E. nortonii

4' Stem tomentose, if glabrous then involucres peduncled at lower nodes

7. Involucres glabrous; s San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges ..... E. argillosum

7' Involucres tomentose; Sacramento Valley, ne San Francisco Bay Area, ne&s Inner South Coast Ranges

8. Leaves basal, blades ± round; styles 0.1–0.3 mm; s Inner South Coast Ranges ..... E. eastwoodianum

8' Leaves basal or basal and cauline, ± round or narrowly oblong to ovate; styles 0.2–1 mm; ne San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges

9. Involucres 2.5–3.5(4) mm; styles 0.2–0.3 mm; Sacramento Valley (extirpated), ne San Francisco Bay Area ..... E. truncatum

9' Involucres (1.5)1.8–2.5 mm; styles 0.2–1 mm; Inner South Coast Ranges

10. Flowers smooth; involucres 2–2.5 mm; leaves basal and subbasal, rarely cauline; s Inner South Coast Ranges ..... E. temblorense

10' Flowers papillate; involucres (1.5)1.8–2 mm; leaves basal and cauline; ne Inner South Coast Ranges ..... E. vestitum

1' Involucres not at tips of slender branchlets, generally appressed; peduncles 0

11. Flowers hairy, white to rose — c&s North Coast Ranges ..... E. dasyanthemum

11' Flowers glabrous or sparsely glandular, white, cream, yellow, rose, or red

12. Involucres 1–2 mm, if 2 mm then outer perianth lobes fan-shaped or ± hastate (except oblong to oblong-ovate in Eriogonum baileyi)

13. Stems glabrous, if tomentose then flowers glandular and plant of e Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; outer perianth lobes oblong to oblong-obovate

14. Flowers yellow or pale ± yellow (or ± white), 0.6–0.8(1) mm; East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... E. brachyanthum

14' Flowers white to rose, 1–2 mm; Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert

15. Flowers 1–1.5 mm, glabrous or puberulent; stem, inflorescence glabrous — San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. elegans

15' Flowers 1.5–3 mm, generally minutely glandular, occasionally glabrous in Sierra Nevada Foothills; stem, inflorescence glabrous or tomentose ..... E. baileyi

16. Inflorescence glabrous; Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert ..... var. baileyi

16' Inflorescence tomentose; Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. praebens

13' Stems tomentose to sparsely so; outer perianth lobes narrowly to widely fan-shaped or ± hastate

17. Outer perianth lobes ± hastate in fruit; flowers 0.8–1.2 mm; involucres bell-shaped, 1–2 mm; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... E. evanidum

17' Outer perianth lobes fan-shaped; flowers 1–3.5 mm; involucres bell-shaped to obconic, 1–2.5 mm; Great Basin Floristic Province, D

18. Leaves cauline; leaf blades narrowly oblanceolate to widely elliptic; plant narrowly erect; flowers white to pink or red; se Mojave Desert ..... [E. polycladon]

18' Leaves basal; leaf blades ± round to cordate; plant generally spreading; flowers white to pink or pale yellow to yellow; Great Basin Floristic Province, D

19. Flowers pale yellow or yellow to red; outer perianth lobes widely fan-shaped; inflorescence generally densely branched, branches incurved; fruit 1–1.3 mm; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... E. nidularium

19' Flowers white to pink or pale yellow, outer perianth lobes narrowly fan-shaped; inflorescence generally sparsely branched, branches not incurved; fruit 1.5–1.8 mm; East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... E. palmerianum

12' Involucres (1.8)2–5(7) mm; outer perianth lobes not fan-shaped or hastate (see also Eriogonum baileyi at 12.)

20. Leaf blades oblong-obovate to oblanceolate or oblong (basal occasionally ± rounded in E. cithariforme)

21. Involucres (3.5)4–5 mm; outer perianth lobes narrowly obovate to oblong; fruit 1.8–2(2.2) mm; Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges ..... E. roseum

21' Involucres (1.8)2–3 mm; outer perianth lobes lanceolate to oblong or oblong-obovate; fruit 1–2 mm; California Floristic Province

22. Inflorescence branches upcurved; basal leaf blades oblanceolate or elliptic to ovate or ± rounded, (0.3)1–2 cm; petiole generally winged; involucres 2.5–3 mm; flowers 1.5–2 mm, white to rose; South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges ..... E. cithariforme

23. Stem, inflorescence glabrous; South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. agninum

23' Stem, inflorescence tomentose; South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges ..... var. cithariforme

22' Inflorescence branches straight; basal leaf blades oblanceolate to oblong, (0.8)1–4(6) cm; petiole not winged; involucres (1.8)2–3 mm; flowers 1.5–3 mm, white to pink or yellow; California Floristic Province ..... E. gracile

24. Inflorescence densely to sparsely tomentose; widespread ..... var. gracile

24' Inflorescence glabrous; Peninsular Ranges ..... var. incultum

20' Leaf blades round-ovate to rounded or reniform, if not then stem and inflorescence branches glabrous and plant of High Sierra Nevada; stem, inflorescence branches glabrous to tomentose

25. Inflorescence sparsely tomentose, especially basally, or glabrous; leaves basal; flowers white to rose or pale yellow — ne Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... E. vimineum

25' Inflorescence tomentose or generally glabrous, if sparsely tomentose then leaves basal and cauline; flowers white to pink, red or yellow

26. Involucres (3.5)4–5(7) mm; plant 4–10 dm; n Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... E. molestum

26' Involucres 2–4 mm; plant 1–5 dm; widespread

27. Leaves basal; involucres 3–4 mm; flowers 1.5–2 mm; stem glabrous; Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... E. davidsonii

27' Leaves basal and cauline, involucres 3–3.5 mm and flowers 1.5–2 mm with sparsely tomentose stem and inflorescence, if leaves only basal and stem glabrous then involucres 2–3.5 mm and plant of n&c Sierra Nevada; n California Floristic Province ..... E. luteolum (in part)

28. Involucres 2–3 mm; flowers 2–2.5 mm; plant of granitic sand; n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... var. saltuarium

28' Involucres 3–3.5 mm; flowers 1–2 mm; plant of serpentine; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area

29. Flowers 1.8–2 mm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. luteolum

29' Flowers 1–1.5(1.8) mm; Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. pedunculatum

Group 2: Annual (except 1st-yr flower Eriogonum inflatum); involucres smooth, not ribbed or angled, generally peduncled, if sessile then not appressed (subg. Ganysma)

1. Perennial herb, flowering 1st year or not — Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... E. inflatum (2)

1' Annual (perennial Eriogonum inflatum may key here if flowering 1st year)

2. Leaves basal and cauline, not basal only or basal and sheathing

3. Involucres glandular-hairy or puberulent

4. Perianth lobes alike, oblong to elliptic, not inflated

5. Involucre glandular-hairy, densely tomentose adaxially, 2.7–3 mm; flower 1.5–1.7 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, sw San Joaquin Valley ..... E. gossypinum

5' Involucre not densely tomentose, 1.8–2 mm; flower 2–2.5 mm; s Sierra Nevada, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges ..... E. gracillimum

4' Perianth lobes not alike, outer elliptic to obovate or ± round, inflated or not, inner narrower

6. Outer perianth lobes generally elliptic to obovate, not obviously inflated, if so then only basally; stamens exserted; c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, s Peninsular Ranges, w Mojave Desert ..... E. angulosum

6' Outer perianth lobes elliptic to ± round or obovate, obviously inflated basally or at tip; stamens included; San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert

7. Outer perianth lobes inflated base to middle; involucres glandular-hairy; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... E. maculatum

7' Outer perianth lobes inflated above middle; involucres glandular; San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, w Mojave Desert ..... E. viridescens

3' Involucres glabrous, long-stiff or long-soft hairy, not glandular-hairy or puberulent

8. Flowers hairy, hairs hooked

9. Flowers 2, 0.8–1.1 mm; fruit tip exserted; Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada, n Central Western California, Transverse Ranges ..... E. hirtiflorum

9' Flowers 4–6, 1.2–1.8 mm; fruit tip not exserted; s North Coast Ranges, c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. inerme

10. Involucres short-stiff hairy; c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... var. hispidulum

10' Involucres glabrous; s North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. inerme

8' Flowers glabrous, if hairy then hairs not hooked

11. Leaves sparsely tomentose or glabrous, oblong-oblanceolate to obovate; flowers densely short-hairy; plant glabrous or sparsely tomentose; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, n Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. ordii (2)

11' Leaves short-hairy, linear; flowers glabrous or sparsely hairy; plant glabrous or glandular and short-hairy; High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges ..... E. spergulinum

12. Inflorescence internodes not glandular; plant prostrate to ascending — s High Sierra Nevada ..... var. pratense

12' Inflorescence internodes glandular; plant erect

13. Flower 1.5–2.5 mm; High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges ..... var. reddingianum

13' Flower 2.5–3.5 mm; Sierra Nevada ..... var. spergulinum

2' Leaves basal and sometimes sheathing, not both basal and cauline

14. Leaf blades glabrous, or hairy on one or both surfaces, or if sparsely tomentose then flowers densely short-soft-hairy

15. Flowers generally glabrous — c High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. esmeraldense var. esmeraldense

15' Flowers hairy

16. Flowers densely short-soft hairy or puberulent, white to pink or red (or ± yellow)

17. Leaf blades oblong-oblanceolate to obovate, sparsely tomentose or glabrous; stem glabrous to sparsely tomentose; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, n Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. ordii (2)

17' Leaf blades oblanceolate to obovate, sparsely soft-shaggy hairy and glandular or coarse-hairy; stem glabrous and sparsely glandular; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, n White and Inyo Mountains, sw Desert Mountains

18. Flowers pink to red, aging to white, 0.5–0.9 mm; leaf blades coarse-hairy; involucres 0.5–0.9 mm; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, n White and Inyo Mountains ..... E. parishii

18' Flowers white to ± red (or yellow), 1.5–2.5 mm; leaf blades soft-shaggy hairy, some glandular; involucres 1.2–1.5 mm; e San Bernardino Mountains, c&s Peninsular Ranges, sw Desert Mountains ..... E. apiculatum

16' Flowers soft-shaggy- or coarse-hairy, white to ± pink or generally yellow

19. Plant glandular throughout; flowers white to ± pink — n&ne Desert Mountains ..... E. glandulosum

19' Plant glabrous, except sometimes glandular or hairy near base or at nodes; flowers yellow to green-yellow or ± red

20. Stem glandular near base

21. Inflorescence glandular at lower nodes; involucre teeth (4)5; plant (0.3)0.5–3 dm; leaf blades generally ± round, (0.3)0.5–1(1.4) cm; fruit 1.5–1.8(2) mm; ne Mojave Desert ..... E. contiguum

21' Inflorescence glabrous; involucre teeth 4; plant (2)4–18(22) dm; leaf blades round to reniform, (0.5)1–2.5(4) cm, (0.5)1–2(3) cm wide; fruit 2–2.5 mm; Central Western California, Southwestern California, s East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... E. clavatum (2)

20' Stem glabrous or basally coarse- or long-soft-hairy

22. Stem, inflorescence ± gray; perennial herb but appearing annual when flowering 1st year — Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... E. inflatum (2)

22' Stem, inflorescence branches ± green or yellow-green; annual

23. Involucres 1–1.5(1.8) mm; plant (2)4–18(22) dm; inflorescence 30–150(170) cm; fruit 2–2.5 mm; Central Western California, Southwestern California, s East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... E. clavatum (2)

23' Involucres 0.7–1 mm; plant 1–4.5(6) dm; inflorescence 5–30 cm; fruit 1–1.5 mm; Desert ..... E. trichopes

14' Leaf blades tomentose to sparsely so on one or both surfaces; flowers glabrous, glandular, or variously hairy, but not short-soft-hairy

24. Outer perianth lobes generally oblong, obovate or round, cordate basally

25. Involucres sessile and erect or on erect peduncles <= 0.5 cm — Mojave Desert

26. Stem 0.5–3 cm; plant 1–4 dm; inflorescence branches spreading ..... E. bifurcatum

26' Stem (5)10–20 cm; plant (0.5)3–6(10) dm; inflorescence branches ± erect ..... E. exaltatum

25' Involucres sessile and reflexed or on reflexed peduncles <= 1.5 cm

27. Stem, inflorescence glandular; East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... E. brachypodum

27' Stem, inflorescence glabrous; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s San Joaquin Valley, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, D

28. Involucres widely bell-shaped; peduncles 0; flowers yellow to red-yellow; East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. hookeri

28' Involucres narrowly obconic or narrowly bell-shaped; peduncles <= 1.5 cm; flowers white to pink; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s San Joaquin Valley, Transverse Ranges, D

29. Involucres 1–1.5 mm; inflorescence of many horizontal tiers; ne Mojave Desert ..... E. rixfordii

29' Involucres 1.5–2.5 mm; inflorescence not of many horizontal tiers; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s San Joaquin Valley, Transverse Ranges, Desert ..... E. deflexum (in part)

30. Involucres (2)2.5–3 mm; peduncles (0.3)0.5–1.5 cm; stem inflated; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s San Joaquin Valley, Transverse Ranges, n&w Mojave Desert ..... var. baratum

30' Involucres 1.5–2.5 mm; peduncles 0 or generally <= 0.5 cm; stem not inflated; Desert ..... var. deflexum

24' Outer perianth lobes oblong to oblanceolate or ovate, truncate to obtuse basally

31. Flowers papillate basally — peduncles curving, ascending, 1–5 cm; Modoc Plateau ..... E. collinum

31' Flowers smooth, not papillate

32. Perianth lobes alike

33. Stems, inflorescence glandular; peduncles 0 or reflexed; flowers 2–2.5 mm ..... E. eremicola

33' Stems, inflorescence glabrous; peduncles erect; flowers 1.5–1.8 mm ..... E. hoffmannii

34. Leaf margins flat, blades 2–4 cm wide; petioles 1–5 cm; plant 0.5–5 dm ..... var. hoffmannii

34' Leaf margins wavy, blades 3–8 cm wide; petioles (3)5–10 cm; plant 4–10 dm ..... var. robustius

32' Perianth lobes not alike, if alike then glandular-hairy

35. Flowers glandular

36. Flowers white to red, glandular-hairy with a tuft of long white hairs adaxially; e Peninsular Ranges, s Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert; outer perianth lobes generally fan-shaped ..... E. thurberi

36' Flowers yellow, if in age ± white then outer perianth lobes sac-like basally, glandular or short-stiff hairy, without a tuft of long white hairs adaxially; Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, D

37. Outer perianth lobes cordate, in age sac-like basally, initially yellow then white to rose; involucres 0.6–1.2 mm, glabrous; Desert ..... E. thomasii

37' Outer perianth lobes oblong-elliptic to obovate or ovate, not sac-like basally, yellow; involucres 1–2 mm, glabrous or glandular-hairy; Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, D

38. Involucres glandular-hairy; Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... E. pusillum

38' Involucres glabrous; Desert ..... E. reniforme

35' Flowers glabrous

39. Peduncles 0 or reflexed; outer perianth lobes oblong; East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. deflexum var. nevadense

39' Peduncles generally curving downward; outer perianth lobes ± fiddle-shaped or oblong to oval; n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province

40. Outer perianth lobes ± fiddle-shaped; peduncles glabrous (or 0); c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, probably introduced in n High Sierra Nevada (Nevada Co.) ..... E. cernuum

40' Outer perianth lobes oblong to oval; peduncles glandular (glabrous); n High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. nutans

41. Peduncles glandular; n East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. nutans

41' Peduncles glabrous; n High Sierra Nevada (introduced but now extirpated) ..... [var. glabratum]]

Group 3: Perennial herb; flower stipe present, sometimes weakly so, not winged; inflorescence bracts 2–13+ (subg. Oligogonum)

1. Involucre teeth not lobe-like, << tube, erect or ± so

2. Flowers hairy

3. Leaf blades tomentose to densely so abaxially, generally glabrous adaxially; nw Klamath Ranges ..... E. pyrolifolium var. coryphaeum

3' Leaf blades glabrous or short hairy on both surfaces; n Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, c&s High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains

4. Leaf blades glabrous; flowers white to rose; stem generally ascending; High Cascade Range ..... E. pyrolifolium var. pyrolifolium

4' Leaf blades short hairy; flowers cream to yellow; stem erect; n Klamath Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains

5. Flowers bright yellow, 3–3.5(4) mm; n Klamath Ranges ..... E. hirtellum

5' Flowers cream to pale yellow, 3–6 mm; c&s High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains ..... E. latens

2' Flowers glabrous

6. Inflorescence not immediately subtended by a whorl of bracts; stem with whorl of bracts near middle

7. Flowers ± white to pink or rose-red; leaf blades silky-tomentose abaxially, 0.1–0.3(0.4) cm wide; c Outer North Coast Ranges ..... E. kelloggii

7' Flowers yellow; leaf blades tomentose abaxially, 0.2–2(3) cm wide; not c Outer North Coast Ranges

8. Stems (0.3)0.4–0.6 dm; leaf blades 1–2(3) cm wide — e Klamath Ranges ..... E. alpinum

8' Stems 0.5–3 dm; leaf blades 0.2–0.7(0.8) cm wide

9. Involucre teeth 5–8, 0.5–1.5 mm; s Klamath Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges, n Inner North Coast Ranges ..... E. libertini

9' Involucre teeth 8–10, 1–3 mm; Sierra Nevada (see also 29') ..... E. prattenianum (2)

6' Inflorescence immediately subtended by whorl of bracts; stem without a whorl of bracts near middle

10. Flowers chalky-white, white to rose or ± pale yellow; flower stipe 0.1–0.4 mm

11. Flowers white to rose, 5–7 mm; involucres 5–10(12) mm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... E. lobbii (2)

11' Flowers chalky-white, 2.5–3.5 mm; involucres (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm; s High Sierra Nevada ..... E. polypodum

10' Flowers yellow or ± brown to sulphur yellow or cream, occasionally with blush of pink-red to maroon (or white); flower stipe (0.1)0.3–1.5 mm

12. Plant unisexual, pistillate and staminate plants morphologically different

13. Leaf blades ± glabrous, bright green to olive-green adaxially; e Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... E. marifolium

14. Involucres 4–5 mm, 5–7 mm wide; leaf-blades narrow; High Cascade Range ..... var. cupulatum

14' Involucres 2–3 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide; leaf-blades wide to round; e Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... var. marifolium

13' Leaf blades tomentose to densely so, generally not green adaxially; Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada

15. Pistillate inflorescence generally persistently head-like (or umbel-like after fertilization); leaf blades (0.5)1–2 cm, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, densely tomentose; petioles 0.7–3 cm; Klamath Ranges ..... E. diclinum

15' Pistillate inflorescence initially head-like, umbel-like after fertilization; leaf blades 0.5–1.5 cm, 0.3–0.7 cm wide, generally tomentose; petioles (0.3)0.5–1 cm; High Sierra Nevada ..... E. incanum

12' Plant bisexual (but generally with some aborted male or female parts), otherwise not morphologically different

16. Flowers sulphur yellow; involucres long-soft-wavy-hairy; inflorescence often compound umbel-like

17. Leaf blades narrow-elliptic to -oblong, 0.3–0.6(0.8) cm wide; subshrub; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range ..... E. congdonii

17' Leaf blades oblong to obovate, (0.4)0.8–1.3 cm wide; perennial herb mat; n Klamath Ranges, s Outer North Coast Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges ..... E. ternatum

16' Flowers white, cream, pale yellow (yellow); involucres tomentose; inflorescence umbel-like

18. Stems 0.2–0.6(1) dm; inflorescence ± head-like; flowers yellow to red or maroon, or white to pink-rose or deep red; s High North Coast Ranges, c&s Inner North Coast Ranges

19. Involucres 4–6.5 mm; stipe 0.1–0.3 mm; flowers yellow to red or maroon; s Outer North Coast Ranges ..... E. cedrorum

19' Involucres 3–4 mm; stipe 0.5–0.8 mm; flowers white to pink-rose or deep red; s High North Coast Ranges, c&s Inner North Coast Ranges ..... E. nervulosum

18' Stems 0.4–4 dm; inflorescence compound-umbel- or umbel-like; flowers cream or ± yellow, blushed or not with pink-red to maroon; Klamath Ranges, s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada ..... E. ursinum

20. Flowers 5–9 mm, cream (or yellow); fruit (5)5.5–8 mm; Klamath Ranges ..... var. erubescens

20' Flowers 4–6 mm, pale yellow (or yellow); fruit 3–3.5 mm; s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada ..... var. ursinum

1' Involucre teeth lobe-like, at least 1/2 tube, generally reflexed or spreading

21. Flowers hairy

22. Stem bractless — Great Basin Floristic Province ..... E. caespitosum

22' Stem with whorl of subtending bracts at base of umbel, middle of stem, or middle of branches

23. Inflorescence scapose, involucres 1

24. Leaf blades densely tomentose on both surfaces; e Klamath Ranges, e High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... E. douglasii var. meridionale

24' Leaf blades sparsely tomentose to ± glabrous adaxially; High Cascade Range, n&s High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau

25. Leaf blades generally narrowly oblanceolate; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... E. sphaerocephalum var. halimioides (2)

25' Leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic; s High Sierra Nevada ..... E. twisselmannii

23' Inflorescence not scapose, involucres >= 1

26. Flowers 4–5 mm, yellow; leaf blades densely tomentose; plant 2.5–5 dm; Inner North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... E. tripodum

26' Flowers (5)6–9 mm, cream or pale to bright yellow; leaf blades densely tomentose to glabrous; plant 0.5–4 dm; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... E. sphaerocephalum

27. Flowers pale yellow to cream; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. halimioides (2)

27' Flowers bright yellow; n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. sphaerocephalum

21' Flowers glabrous

28. Inflorescence head-like, involucres not immediately subtended by leafy bracts; stem with a whorl of leafy bracts near middle; flowers yellow

29. Leaf blades (0.3)0.5–0.8 cm, sparsely tomentose to ± glabrous, bright green or olive-green adaxially; generally matted perennial herb; e Klamath Ranges ..... E. siskiyouense

29' Leaf blades 0.5–1.5(2) cm, densely tomentose or ± glabrous adaxially, generally pale green adaxially; plant erect or rounded perennial herb or subshrub, occasionally mat; n&c Sierra Nevada, s High Sierra Nevada ..... E. prattenianum (2)

30. Leaf blades tomentose abaxially, subglabrous adaxially; c&s High Sierra Nevada ..... var. avium

30' Leaf blades tomentose on both surfaces; n&c Sierra Nevada ..... var. prattenianum

28' Inflorescence umbel-like or compound-umbel-like, involucres immediately subtended by leafy bracts; stem with or without an additional whorl of bracts near middle; flowers white, yellow, or rose

31. Stem with whorl of leaf-like bracts near middle — leaf blades generally linear-oblanceolate to oblanceolate; Warner Mountains ..... E. heracleoides var. heracleoides

31' Stems without a whorl of leaf-like bracts near middle

32. Flower stipe 0.1–0.4 mm — stem prostrate to decumbent or weakly erect; inflorescence ± head- to umbel-like — Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... E. lobbii (2)

32' Flower stipe 0.7–2 mm

33. Leaf blades (2)7–25 cm; stem generally ± inflated; Northwestern California, Cascade Range ..... E. compositum var. compositum

33' Leaf blades 0.3–3(4) cm; stem not inflated; most of California ..... E. umbellatum

34. Main inflorescence branches of 1 order, none with a whorl of bracts near middle

35. Flowers generally ± white or cream to red, occasionally ± yellow

36. Leaf blades densely tomentose on both surfaces — flowers generally lemon yellow to yellow-red; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. minus

36' Leaf blades tomentose to glabrous adaxially

37. Flowers pale yellow to cream or ± white (or green-white); leaf blades ± green adaxially; Warner Mountains, White and Inyo Mountains ..... var. dichrocephalum

37' Flowers yellow, in age red-brown to rose or pink, with large ± red spot on each lobe; leaf blades generally ± red adaxially; White and Inyo Mountains (Inyo Mtns), Desert Mountains ..... var. versicolor (2)

35' Flowers bright yellow

38. Flower clusters with branches generally > 2.5 cm

39. Leaf blades sparsely tomentose abaxially; subshrub — Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, nw Mojave Desert ..... var. nevadense (2)

39' Leaf blades densely white-tomentose or tomentose abaxially; subshrub or spreading to prostrate mat

40. Shrub 3–5 dm, on non-serpentine; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. dumosum

40' Perennial mat (0.7)1–4.5(5) dm, on serpentine; Klamath Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges, n High Cascade Range

41. Stems 1–2.5(4) dm; leaf blades 0.5–2(3.5) cm; flowers 6–8(9) mm ..... var. goodmanii

41' Stems 0.5–1.5 dm; leaf blades 0.5–1(1.5) cm; flowers 3–6 mm ..... var. humistratum

38' Flower clusters with branches <= 2.5 cm

42. Plant prostrate, subalpine and alpine — c&s High Sierra Nevada, n White and Inyo Mountains ..... var. covillei

42' Plant erect to ± spreading, generally not subalpine or alpine

43. Leaf blades sparsely tomentose abaxially; Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, nw Mojave Desert ..... var. nevadense (2)

43' Leaf blades tomentose to densely so abaxially; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, Desert Mountains

44. Inflorescence branches (2.5)3–10(15) cm; Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. modocense

44' Inflorescence branches 1–2.5(4) cm; Klamath Ranges, s High Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains

45. Involucre tubes 3–4 mm; plant on serpentine; Klamath Ranges ..... var. nelsoniorum

45' Involucre tubes 2–3 mm; plant not on serpentine; s High Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains ..... var. canifolium

34' Main inflorescence branches of >= 2 orders, or at least some with a whorl of bracts near middle

46. Inflorescence with a whorl of bracts at middle (see also Eriogonum umbellatum var. polyanthum)

47. Flowers cream or ± white, 4–7 mm; Warner Mountains ..... var. glaberrimum

47' Flowers yellow, 7–10 mm; n High Sierra Nevada ..... var. torreyanum

46' Inflorescence without a whorl of bracts at middle, bracts only at base of inflorescence or involucres

48. Flowers 7–10(12) mm; shrub; inflorescence 2–4-branched; Klamath Ranges ..... var. speciosum

48' Flowers 3–8 mm; perennial herb mat or subshrub, if shrub then inflorescence 3-branched; not of Klamath Ranges

49. Flowers cream, ± white, pale yellow, or green-yellow, or yellow, in age red-brown to rose or pink

50. Flowers cream, ± white, pale yellow, or green-yellow, without large ± red spot on each lobe; subshrub or shrub; e Desert Mountains ..... var. juniporinum

50' Flowers yellow, in age red-brown to rose or pink, with large ± red spot on each lobe; spreading to ± prostrate mat; White and Inyo Mountains (Inyo Mtns), Desert Mountains ..... var. versicolor (2)

49' Flowers yellow, in age not red-brown to rose or pink

51. Leaf blades glabrous to densely tomentose (see also Eriogonum umbellatum var. munzii of Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains)

52. Leaf blades densely tomentose — Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Western California ..... var. bahiiforme

52' Leaf blades densely tomentose to glabrous

53. Leaf blades tomentose to densely so abaxially, tomentose to sparsely so adaxially; Northwestern California

54. Leaf blades (0.5)0.8–1.8(2) cm wide; involucre lobes (3)4–6 mm; Klamath Ranges ..... var. lautum (2)

54' Leaf blades 0.3–0.7 cm wide; involucre lobes 1–3 mm; North Coast Ranges ..... var. smallianum (2)

53' Leaf blades generally sparsely tomentose to glabrous; not Northwestern California

55. Leaf blades glabrous; s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, nw Mojave Desert ..... var. chlorothamnus

55' Leaf blades sparsely tomentose to glabrous adaxially; se Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... var. subaridum

51' Leaf blades sparsely to densely tomentose, or densely tomentose abaxially, less so to glabrous adaxially (rarely both surfaces tomentose in Eriogonum umbellatum var. munzii of Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains)

56. Shrub, densely branched — n Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada/High Cascade Range

57. Leaf blades rusty-woolly to tomentose abaxially; inflorescence 3–4-branched, branches tomentose to woolly, central branch without a whorl of bracts near middle ..... var. ahartii

57' Leaf blades white-tomentose abaxially; inflorescence 1–2(3)-branched, branches sparsely tomentose to glabrous, central branch occasionally with a whorl of bracts near middle ..... var. polyanthum

56' Perennial mat or more openly and sparsely branched subshrub or shrub

58. Stems generally sparsely tomentose or glabrous

59. Leaf margins finely wavy; stems often with leaf-like bract near middle; Klamath Ranges, c High North Coast Ranges ..... var. argus

59' Leaf margins flat; stems without leaf-like bract near middle; High Sierra Nevada ..... var. furcosum

58' Stems generally tomentose or sparsely tomentose (or ± glabrous in age)

60. Involucre lobes (3)4–6 mm; leaf blades generally widely elliptic — Klamath Ranges ..... var. lautum (2)

60' Involucre lobes 1–3 mm; leaf blades elliptic

61. Leaf blades 0.5–1 cm wide; Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... var. munzii

61' Leaf blades 0.3–0.7 cm wide; North Coast Ranges ..... var. smallianum (2)

Group 4: Perennial herb; flower stipe 0 or ± winged; inflorescence bracts generally 3 (mainly subg. Eucycla)

1. Stem basally jointed, breaking into short-cylindric sections; flowers 150–200 — n Desert Mountains (subg. Clastomyelon) ..... E. intrafractum

1' Stem not jointed, not breaking into sections; flowers 7–100

2. Flowers with dense coarse, curved, ± white hairs; leaves generally coarse-hairy on both surfaces; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert (subg. Ganysma) ..... E. inflatum

2' Flowers glabrous or not as above; leaves tomentose to sparsely so at least abaxially, not coarse-hairy

3. Flower stipe ± winged

4. Flowers bright yellow; inflorescence cyme- or umbel-like, 0.5–3 cm; fruit 2.5–3 mm; s Western Transverse Ranges ..... E. crocatum

4' Flowers white to rose or ± yellow; inflorescence cyme-like, 10–25 cm; fruit 3.5–4 mm; s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... E. saxatile

3' Flower stipe 0

5. Plant forming cespitose or cushion-like mat; inflorescence head-like, if not then plant 0.1–1 dm

6. Inflorescence branched

7. Flowers glandular-hairy, ± white to ± red; stem generally glandular-hairy; s High Sierra Nevada ..... E. breedlovei

8. Stem erect; inflorescence umbel-like (head-like) ..... var. breedlovei

8' Stem suberect to prostrate; inflorescence cyme-like ..... var. shevockii

7' Flowers glabrous, white to pink or rose or ± yellow with ± red spot; stem not glandular; s High Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains

9. Flowers 3.5–5 mm, lobes not alike, outer round; involucres 1.5–2 mm; n Desert Mountains ..... E. gilmanii

9' Flowers (1.5)2–2.5 mm, lobes alike; involucres 0.8–1.7(2) mm; s High Sierra Nevada ..... E. wrightii var. olanchense (2)

6' Inflorescence head-like

10. Perianth lobes not alike, outer generally 2 × as wide as inner; stems sparsely to densely tomentose or ± glabrous — Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... E. ovalifolium

11. Leaf blades generally 1–6 cm (or shorter); stem (1)5–30(40) cm; involucres (3.5)4–6.5(8) mm

12. Stem generally 1–5(7.5) cm; — leaf blades densely tomentose; n High Sierra Nevada (Job's Peak, Alpine Co.) ..... var. eximium (2)

12' Stem generally (4)7–30(40) cm (or shorter)

13. Flowers 5–7 mm; involucres 5–7 mm; rare, ne San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. vineum (2)

13' Flowers 4–5 mm; involucres 4–6.5 mm; common, not San Bernardino Mountains

14. Flowers yellow; High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. ovalifolium

14' Flowers white to rose or purple; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. purpureum

11' Leaf blades 0.2–1.2 (2) cm; stem generally 0.3–5(9) cm (or longer); involucres generally 2–4.5(8) mm

15. Flowers yellow — c High Sierra Nevada ..... var. caelestinum

15' Flowers white, rose, purple or red

16. Leaf blades densely tomentose, margins ± brown — n High Sierra Nevada (Job's Peak, Alpine Co.) ..... var. eximium (2)

16' Leaf blades tomentose to densely so, margins not ± brown

17. Involucres 3–4.5 mm

18. Leaf blades tomentose, to sparsely so adaxially; rare, Modoc Plateau ..... var. depressum

18' Leaf blades tomentose to densely so on both surfaces; common, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains ..... var. nivale

17' Involucres 5–8 mm — s High Sierra Nevada or ne San Bernardino Mountains

19. Leaf blades tomentose to sparsely so; s High Sierra Nevada ..... var. monarchense

19' Leaf blades densely tomentose; ne San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. vineum (2)

10' Perianth lobes alike, if not then stems glandular-hairy

20. Flowers yellow or red-yellow

21. Involucres glandular and sparsely hairy; stem glandular-hairy; n&c High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. rosense var. rosense

21' Involucres glabrous or sparsely tomentose, occasionally glandular; stem glabrous or glandular; Modoc Plateau

22. Leaf blades obovate or not, 1–2 cm, (0.3)0.5–1(1.5) cm wide; stem 0.5–1.5(2) dm, glandular below inflorescence; involucres sparsely tomentose, occasionally sparsely glandular ..... E. ochrocephalum var. ochrocephalum

22' Leaf blades not obovate, 0.3–1(1.4) cm, 0.15–0.4(0.6) cm wide; stem 0.2–0.6(0.8) dm, glabrous; involucres glabrous or sparsely tomentose ..... E. prociduum

20' Flowers white to rose or pink

23. Involucres sparsely glandular to glandular-hairy or hairy, pliable; c&s High Sierra Nevada, n White and Inyo Mountains ..... E. gracilipes

23' Involucres glabrous or tomentose, rigid; c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains

24. Fruit tomentose; East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains (Last Chance Range) ..... E. shockleyi var. shockleyi

24' Fruit glabrous; c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, nw Desert Mountains

25. Pedicels hairy; leaves (1)2–5 cm, 0.8–2 cm wide; plant 3–10(11) dm diam; Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... E. callistum (2)

25' Pedicels glabrous; leaves 0.2–1(1.2) cm, 0.05–0.4 cm wide; plant 1–4 dm diam; c&s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, nw Desert Mountains ..... E. kennedyi

26. Leaf hairs white; plant forming dense mat; c&s Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, nw Desert Mountains ..... var. purpusii

26' Leaf hairs gray- or red- to brown-white; plant generally forming loose, open mat; se Sierra Nevada Foothills, Transverse Ranges

27. Leaf blades oblong, 0.3–0.5 cm, 0.1–0.4 cm wide; se Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. pinicola

27' Leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic, 0.2–1.2 cm, 0.05–0.2 cm wide; Transverse Ranges

28. Stem 0.5–2(3) cm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. alpigenum

28' Stem 4–15 cm; n Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains

29. Stem sparsely tomentose; involucres 2.5–4 mm ..... var. austromontanum

29' Stem glabrous; involucres 1.5–2.5 mm ..... var. kennedyi

5' Shrub to subshrub or spreading to erect herb; inflorescence branched, if head-like then plant 1–5 dm

30. Involucres clustered 2–10+ per node

31. Perianth lobes not alike ..... E. strictum

32. Flowers yellow — Cascade Range, ne Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. anserinum

32' Flowers white to rose or purple

33. Leaf hairs white, densely tomentose to tomentose; Klamath Ranges ..... var. greenei

33' Leaf hairs ± gray or ± green, tomentose to sparsely so; Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, ne High Sierra Nevada, w Modoc Plateau ..... var. proliferum

31' Perianth lobes alike

34. Herb

35. Leaf blades lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4–15(25) cm, long-soft-hairy ..... E. elatum

36. Stem, inflorescence glabrous; n California ..... var. elatum

36' Stem, inflorescence long-soft-hairy; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. villosum

35' Leaf blades oblanceolate to ovate or elliptic, generally 2–6 cm, tomentose abaxially, tomentose to glabrous adaxially

37. Involucres 3–6 mm wide; stem, inflorescence glabrous (to sparsely tomentose); inflorescence ± head- to cyme-like; leaf blades densely tomentose abaxially, tomentose to ± glabrous adaxially; Channel Islands ..... E. grande

38. Flowers pink to red or rose; plant 2–5 dm; involucres 5–7 mm; Santa Rosa, San Miguel, Santa Cruz islands, occasionally Central Western California ..... var. rubescens

38' Flowers white; plant 1–15 dm; involucres 4–6 mm; various islands except Santa Rosa Island

39. Plant 5–15 dm; involucres 5–6 mm; San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands, occasionally Central Western California ..... var. grande

39' Plant 1–2(2.5) dm; involucres 4–5 mm; San Nicolas Island ..... var. timorum

37' Involucres (1.5)2–4 mm wide; stem, inflorescence glabrous to tomentose; inflorescence head- to umbel- or cyme-like; leaf blades tomentose to densely so on both surfaces, or tomentose to glabrous adaxially; mainland

40. Pedicels hairy; flowers densely hairy — Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... E. callistum (2)

40' Pedicels glabrous; flowers glabrous or hairy

41. Involucres, stems tomentose to (glabrous); leaf blades densely white- to yellow-brown-tomentose on both surfaces, or tomentose to glabrous adaxially; subshrub or mat — North Coast, n&c Central Coast ..... E. latifolium

41' Involucres, stems glabrous, if tomentose then plant not in North Coast, n&c Central Coast; leaf blades tomentose to densely so on both surfaces or tomentose to glabrous adaxially; plant generally erect ..... E. nudum (2)

42. Involucres, inflorescence branches tomentose to sparsely so; leaves generally basal

43. Flowers white to rose or yellow; stem tomentose to hairy; leaf blades 2–4 cm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada ..... var. oblongifolium

43' Flowers white; stem densely tomentose (to tomentose); leaf blades 2–3.5 cm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. regirivum (2)

42' Involucres, inflorescence branches glabrous, if not then leaves sheathing

44. Leaves sheathing, margins generally strongly wavy

45. Stems tomentose

46. Flowers hairy, 1.5–2 mm; involucres 3–4 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. regirivum (2)

46' Flowers glabrous, 2–4 mm; involucres 3–6 mm; San Francisco Bay Area

47. Leaf blades (1)3–8 cm, (1)2–4 cm wide, sheathing 1–5(10) cm; c San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. auriculatum (2)

47' Leaf blades 1–3 cm, 1–1.5 cm wide, sheathing 5–20 cm; s San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. decurrens

45' Stems glabrous

48. Leaf blades densely tomentose abaxially, tomentose adaxially; involucres 5–10; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. murinum

48' Leaf blades tomentose abaxially, less so to glabrous adaxially; involucres 1–5; Northwestern California, deltaic Great Central Valley (Contra Costa Co.), Central Western California

49. Involucres solitary; stem inflated; flowers white to yellow, glabrous; e Inner South Coast Ranges ..... var. indictum

49' Involucres 1–5 on same pl; stem not or ± inflated; flowers white to pink (or ± yellow), glabrous or hairy; Northwestern California, deltaic Great Central Valley (Contra Costa Co.), Central Western California

50. Involucres (2)3–5 per cluster; stem not or ± inflated; flowers white to pink (or ± yellow), glabrous; Northwestern California, Central Western California ..... var. auriculatum (2)

50' Involucres 1–3; stem not inflated; flowers white to pink, hairy; deltaic Great Central Valley (Contra Costa Co.) ..... var. psychicola

44' Leaves basal, margins not or ± wavy

51. Involucres 1(2)

52. Stem inflated; flowers yellow (or white) — s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, s East of Sierra Nevada, w Mojave Desert ..... var. westonii (2)

52' Stem not inflated, if so then plant of Peninsular Ranges; flowers white (or yellow)

53. Flowers hairy (or glabrous); Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... var. pauciflorum (2)

53' Flowers glabrous; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Great Basin Floristic Province

54. Leaf blades 1–2 cm; High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. deductum

54' Leaf blades 1–5 cm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. nudum (2)

51' Involucres 2–10

55. Flowers hairy, generally yellow

56. Stem not inflated; leaf blades glabrous or woolly-tufted adaxially, margins flat; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. pubiflorum

56' Stem ± to distinctly inflated; leaf blades tomentose to sparsely so adaxially, margins wavy; s East of Sierra Nevada, w Mojave Desert ..... var. westonii (2)

55' Flowers generally glabrous, white (or yellow)

57. Inflorescence generally head-like or ± so; alpine, c&s High Sierra Nevada ..... var. scapigerum

57' Inflorescence cyme-like, if head-like or ± so then not alpine

58. Involucres 5–7 mm, 1(2); Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... var. pauciflorum (2)

58' Involucres 3–5 mm, 2–10; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area

59. Inflorescence cyme-like, branched 2+ times; involucres 2–5; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. nudum (2)

59' Inflorescence head- or cyme-like, branched 1–2 times; involucres 5–10; n North Coast ..... var. paralinum

34' Shrub

60. Leaf blades narrowly linear to oblanceolate, <= 2 cm, generally strongly clustered; widespread ..... E. fasciculatum

61. Leaves thinly white-tomentose abaxially, glabrous adaxially; flowers, involucres generally glabrous; plant generally decumbent; Central Coast ..... var. fasciculatum

61' Leaves, flowers, involucres hairy, if ± glabrous then plant of deserts; plant erect to rounded; California Floristic Province, East of Sierra Nevada, D

62. Leaves light yellow-green, glabrous or ± so adaxially; involucres, flowers glabrous or occasionally hairy; Desert ..... var. flavoviride

62' Leaves dark green or ± gray, generally hairy adaxially; involucres, flowers hairy; California Floristic Province, East of Sierra Nevada, D

63. Inflorescence open, mostly cyme-like; leaves densely white-tomentose abaxially, less so to green, sparsely tomentose adaxially, margins generally tightly rolled under; Central Western California, Southwestern California, occasionally Northwestern California, Desert ..... var. foliolosum

63' Inflorescence head- to umbel-like (or cyme-like); leaves gray-hairy on both surfaces or densely gray-tomentose abaxially, gray-hairy adaxially, margins not or occasionally rolled under; s Sierra Nevada, Inner South Coast Ranges, e South Coast, Transverse Ranges, e Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... var. polifolium

60' Leaf blades linear-oblong to round, if linear then > 2 cm and not clustered; Central Western California, Southwestern California

64. Flowers glabrous; Central Coast, South Coast ..... E. parvifolium

64' Flowers long-soft-hairy; Central Coast, South Coast, Channel Islands, occasionally established elsewhere

65. Leaf blades linear to narrowly oblong, 2–4(5) cm, white-tomentose abaxially, gray-hairy to ± glabrous adaxially, margins rolled under; n Channel Islands, occasionally established elsewhere ..... E. arborescens

65' Leaf blades ovate or lanceolate to oblong- or narrow-ovate, 1.5–10 cm, white- or gray-tomentose generally on both surfaces, margins flat; Central Western California, Southwestern California

66. Leaf blades ovate, 1.5–3 cm, 1–2.5(3) cm wide; inflorescence generally head-like; s Central Coast, w South Coast, n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island), occasionally established Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... E. cinereum

66' Leaf blades oblong-ovate to ovate or lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 2–7(10) cm, 1–5 cm wide; inflorescence generally open, cyme-like; s Channel Islands, occasionally established Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... E. giganteum

67. Leaf blades lance-oblong to lanceolate; San Clemente Island ..... var. formosum

67' Leaf blades oblong-ovate to ovate; Santa Catalina, Santa Barbara islands

68. Leaf blades 2.5–3.5(6) cm, 1.5–2(4) cm wide; inflorescence rarely open; Santa Barbara Island ..... var. compactum

68' Leaf blades 3–7(10) cm, 2–5 cm wide; inflorescence open; Santa Catalina Island, occasionally Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... var. giganteum

30' Involucres 1 per node

69. Involucres in raceme-like arrangements at tips of inflorescence branches

70. Involucres (4)6–7 mm; perennial herb, 6–12(18) dm — c&s Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... E. elongatum var. elongatum

70' Involucres (0.8)1–6 mm; herb to shrub, (1)1.5–5 dm

71. Shrub — s Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada ..... E. nummulare

71' Subshrub or herb

72. Plant basally ± woody, much-branched; leaf blades oblanceolate to elliptic, 0.1–1 cm wide, margins often rolled under

73. Involucres (4)5–6 mm; flowers (3)4–5 mm, cream to rose; n Outer South Coast Ranges ..... E. butterworthianum

73' Involucres 0.7–4 mm; flowers 1.5–4 mm, white to pink or rose; widespread ..... E. wrightii

74. Herb, loosely to compactly matted

75. Plant 0.1–0.3(0.6) dm; leaf blades 0.1–0.25 cm; involucres 0.8–1.7(2) mm; s High Sierra Nevada ..... var. olanchense (2)

75' Plant 0.5–2.5(3) dm; leaf blades 0.5–1(1.2) cm; involucres 1.5–4 mm; Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, e Peninsular Ranges ..... var. subscaposum

74' Shrub or subshrub

76. Stems, inflorescence ± gray, tomentose to densely so — e Peninsular Ranges, s Mojave Desert, w Sonoran Desert ..... var. nodosum

76' Stems, inflorescence ± white, ± red, or ± green, tomentose to woolly-tufted

77. Petiole bases forming distinct ring around stem; leaf blades 0.2–0.6(1) cm, 0.1–0.3(0.4) cm wide; Southwestern California ..... var. membranaceum

77' Petiole bases not forming ring around stem; leaf blades 0.5–3 cm, 0.2–1 cm wide; Northwestern California, s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Mojave Desert

78. Leaf blades 1.5–3 cm, 0.5–1 cm wide; involucres 2–4 mm; flowers 2.5–4 mm; Northwestern California, s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... var. trachygonum

78' Leaf blades 0.5–1.5 cm, 0.2–0.5(0.7) cm wide; involucres 2–2.5 mm; flowers 2.5–3.5 mm; Mojave Desert ..... var. wrightii

72' Plant basally not woody, little-branched; leaf blades round to widely ovate, (0.3)1–3.5(4) cm wide, margins flat — White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains

79. Leaf blades ± round, (0.3)0.5–1.5 cm, petioles 1–2 cm; involucres bell-shaped ..... E. mensicola

79' Leaf blades ovate to elliptic, oblong, or obovate, 1.5–4.5(5) cm, petioles 1–7 cm; involucres generally narrower than bell-shaped

80. Leaf blades ovate to elliptic or obovate, 1.5–4 cm, 1–2.5 cm wide, petioles 1–5 cm; involucres 3–5 mm, 2–4 mm wide ..... E. panamintense

80' Leaf blades elliptic to oblong, (2)2.5–4.5(5) cm, 1.5–3.5(4) cm wide, petioles (2)3–7 cm; involucres 3–4 mm, 3–4 mm wide ..... E. rupinum

69' Involucres in forks of branches

81. Herb

82. Leaf blades ovate to elliptic or oblanceolate, (0.3)1–4 cm wide; California (see 41' above) ..... E. nudum (2)

82' Leaf blades round-ovate, 0.3–0.5(1) cm wide; n Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... E. apricum

83. Stems erect to ± spreading ..... var. apricum

83' Stems prostrate ..... var. prostratum

81' Subshrub to shrub

84. Flowers hairy

85. Flowers green-yellow to yellow; involucres 4-toothed — s Sonoran Desert ..... E. deserticola

85' Flowers white; involucres 5–8-toothed

86. Involucres 3.5–5 mm; nw Klamath Ranges ..... E. pendulum

86' Involucres 2–3 mm; High Cascade Range ..... E. spectabile

84' Flowers glabrous

87. Inflorescence panicle- or cyme-like, generally extensively branched, generally open, not terminal; involucres glabrous

88. Outer perianth lobes obovate; inflorescence branches ± gray, generally spreading, tiered; Desert ..... E. plumatella

88' Outer perianth lobes obovate to round; inflorescence branches green, ascending, not tiered; c&s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... E. heermannii

89. Stems, inflorescence branches round or angled, minutely scabrous or papillate-scabrous; plant generally densely branched; Desert Mountains

90. Stems, inflorescence branches round, glabrous or minutely scabrous ..... var. argense

90' Stems, inflorescence branches sharply angled, deeply grooved, minutely scabrous ..... var. sulcatum

89' Stems, inflorescence branches round, not angled, generally smooth, glabrous or sparsely tomentose to woolly-tufted; plant sparsely branched; widespread

91. Involucres not in raceme-like arrangement, or only uppermost 2–3 so disposed; inflorescence branches glabrous — c&s High Sierra Nevada (e slope), East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains ..... var. humilius

91' Involucres in raceme-like arrangement, at least at tips of branches; inflorescence branches glabrous or sparsely tomentose to woolly-tufted

92. Inflorescence sparsely tomentose to woolly-tufted; s California ..... var. floccosum

92' Inflorescence branches glabrous; s-c, sw California

93. Leaf blades 0.5–1.5 cm, glabrous to sparsely tomentose abaxially; inflorescence branches stout; s High Sierra Nevada (Kern Co.), Tehachapi Mountain Area, se Outer South Coast Ranges (se San Luis Obispo Co.), n Transverse Ranges ..... var. heermannii

93' Leaf blades 1.5–3(4) cm, generally tomentose to sparsely so abaxially (at least in early flower); inflorescence branches slender; c Inner South Coast Ranges ..... var. occidentale

87' Inflorescence cyme-like, generally moderately branched, generally compact, terminal; involucres tomentose to glabrous

94. Plant matted subshrub, 0.5–1.5 dm; leaf blades 0.4–0.6 cm, margins rolled under; e Desert Mountains ..... E. thornei

94' Plant erect to spreading subshrub or shrub, 0.2–15 dm; leaf blades (0.3)1–3.5 cm, margins flat, or if rolled under; widespread ..... E. microthecum

95. Flowers yellow

96. Leaf blades (0.2)0.3–0.6(0.8) cm wide; flowers (1.5)2–2.5(3) mm; involucres 2–2.5 mm; fruit 1.5–2 mm; High Sierra Nevada (e slope), Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. ambiguum

96' Leaf blades 0.5–1.2 cm wide; flowers 2.5–3 mm; involucres 2.5–4 mm; fruit 2.5–3 mm; s Modoc Plateau ..... var. schoolcraftii

95' Flowers white, cream, orange, pink, or red

97. Hairs ± white (see also Eriogonum microthecum var. alpinum) or stem, inflorescence rarely glabrous

98. Leaf margins flat; inflorescence sparsely tomentose or glabrous; Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. laxiflorum

98' Leaf margins generally rolled under; inflorescence tomentose to densely so or rarely subglabrous; s East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... var. simpsonii

97' Hairs ± brown or ± red (generally white in Eriogonum microthecum var. alpinum) or stems, inflorescence generally glabrous

99. Shrub 3–6 dm

100. Stems, inflorescence tomentose to densely so; flowers 2–2.5(3) mm; fruit 2.5–3 mm; e San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. corymbosoides

100' Stems, inflorescence tomentose in youth, sparsely tomentose in age; flowers 1.5–2(2.5) mm; fruit 1.8–2 mm; s White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains ..... var. panamintense

99' Subshrub 0.2–1.5(2) dm

101. Leaf blades elliptic or ovate, margins flat; flowers (1.5)2–3.5(4) mm

102. Leaf blades 0.5–1 cm, (0.2)0.3–0.5(0.6) cm wide; involucres (2)2.5–3 mm; flowers (2.5)3–3.5(4) mm; e San Gabriel Mountains, w San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. johnstonii

102' Leaf blades 0.3–0.7(0.8) cm, 0.1–0.4 cm wide; involucres 2.5–3.5 mm; flowers (1.5)2–3.5 mm; s White and Inyo Mountains ..... var. lapidicola

101' Leaf blades linear or linear-oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, margins often rolled under; flowers 1.5–2.5 mm

103. Involucres (1.5)2–3 mm; flowers white to pink or rose; n&c High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. alpinum

103' Involucres 3–4 mm; flowers cream; San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. lacus-ursi

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