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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, glabrous; monoecious. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1–8 dm, base often ± red. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled; ocrea soon torn, falling; blade ± hastate to cordate. Staminate inflorescence: axillary, terminal, raceme-like; flowers 1–8. Pistillate inflorescence: axillary, spike-like; flowers 1–8. Staminate flower: perianth parts 5–6, free; stamens 4–6. Pistillate flower: perianth parts 6, fused; outer 3 spine-tipped in fruit, inner 3 tubercled; styles 3, free. Fruit: included, 2–4.5 mm, ovate, shiny, spines 3; perianth hardened.
2 species: native to Mediterranean, South Africa, spread worldwide. (Latin: removal from Rumex) Hybrids occur readily when species together; highly sterile when self-pollinated but can backcross with either parent to form viable seeds.

Key to Emex

1. Perianth in fruit (including spines) 9–13 mm; inner perianth parts of pistillate flowers widely triangular-ovate, tips mucronate ..... E. australis

1' Perianth in fruit (including spines) 3–7 mm; inner perianth parts of pistillate flowers lance-linear, tips acute ..... E. spinosa


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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