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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

CHORIZANTHE SPINEFLOWER
Annual [perennial herb], prostrate to erect, generally hairy. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, linear to narrow, awns 0; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: terminal, generally cyme- or head-like, hairy [(glabrous)]; peduncles 0; involucres generally 1–6, tubular, 3–6-ribbed, teeth 3, 5, or 6, awned. Flower: 1(2), glabrous or hairy; perianth white, yellow, red, maroon, or purple, lobes (5)6, entire, notched or lobed to fringed; stamens generally 3, 6, or 9. Fruit: generally brown or black, generally elliptic, glabrous; embryo straight or curved.
± 50 species: temperate western North America; southwestern South America. (Greek: divided flower, for perianth lobes) [Morgan et al. 2014 Phytoneuron 2014–63: 1–9] Involucre length measurements including teeth and awns unless otherwise specified. Chorizanthe minutiflora newly described, added.

Key to Chorizanthe

1. Involucre 3–5-toothed or -ribbed

2. Involucre teeth (4)5

3. Involucre awns straight; flower glabrous; stamens fused to perianth tube base — s Inner South Coast Ranges (Caliente Range), w Mojave Desert ..... C. spinosa

3' Involucre awns hooked; flower hairy; stamens fused to perianth tube top

4. Involucre bell-shaped, tube 2–2.5 mm, abaxial tooth not longer, not wider than others; flower white to rose, 1.5–1.8(2) mm; c&n California ..... C. polygonoides var. polygonoides (2)

4' Involucre cylindric, tube 3–4.5 mm, abaxial tooth longer, wider than others; flower yellow, 1.5–2.5 mm; sw San Joaquin Valley, n edge Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert ..... C. watsonii

2' Involucre teeth 3

5. Involucre cylindric, markedly transversely ridged; stamens 6 — Desert ..... C. corrugata

5' Involucre urn- to bell-shaped, not markedly transversely ridged; stamens 9

6. Plant prostrate; involucre bell-shaped; abaxial tooth 1.8–2 mm, awn hooked; s South Coast ..... C. orcuttiana

6' Plant erect; involucre urn-shaped; abaxial tooth 5–10 mm, awn straight; East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... C. rigida

1' Involucre 6–toothed or -ribbed

7. Involucre teeth with scarious margins

8. Involucre teeth scarious margins continuous across sinuses

9. Perianth lobes obcordate to 2-lobed — Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. stellulata (2)

9' Perianth lobes entire

10. Involucre hairy, 3–5 mm; flower 3.5–4(4.5) mm; South Coast Ranges ..... C. douglasii

10' Involucre tomentose to ± glabrous, 3–4 mm; flower (1.5)2.5–3 mm; more widespread in California Floristic Province ..... C. membranacea

8' Involucre teeth scarious margins not continuous across sinuses

11. Involucre awns straight

12. Involucres 3–4 in small bracted clusters; perianth lobes alike — Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. stellulata (2)

12' Involucres 1; perianth lobes not alike

13. Flower (3)3.5–4.5 mm, hairy generally throughout; plant generally spreading to decumbent; c North Coast ..... C. howellii

13' Flower (4)5–6 mm, hairy on lower 1/2; plant erect to spreading; n Central Coast ..... C. valida (2)

11' Involucre awns hooked

14. Flower glabrous; perianth lobes entire, tube yellow — Central Coast, w San Francisco Bay Area, w Outer South Coast Ranges ..... C. diffusa

14' Flower hairy; perianth lobes 2-lobed, jagged, or short-pointed, tube white

15. Involucre tube 2.5–4 mm, thinly hairy; flower 2.5–4 mm ..... C. robusta

16. Involucre lobes rose-pink; plant erect; s San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. hartwegii

16' Involucre lobes white; plant spreading or decumbent; n-c Central Coast, sw San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. robusta

15' Involucre tube 1–2.5(3) mm, densely hairy; flower 2–3 mm

17. Perianth lobes awned ..... C. cuspidata var. cuspidata (2)

17' Perianth lobes minutely jagged

18. Involucre teeth margins ± pink; involucre tube 1.5–2(2.5) mm; flower 2–3 mm; stamens 3 or 6–9 ..... C. angustifolia (2)

18' Involucre teeth margins white (± pink) or dark ± pink to purple; involucre tube 2–2.5(3) mm; flower 2–3.5 mm; stamens 9 ..... C. pungens

19. Involucre teeth margins dark ± pink to purple; plant ± ascending to erect; 90–500 m ..... var. hartwegiana

19' Involucre teeth margins white (± pink); plant prostrate to ± ascending; 0–65 m ..... var. pungens

7' Involucre teeth without scarious margins (except Chorizanthe fimbriata, Chorizanthe procumbens)

20. Involucre teeth of unequal, not of equal or alternating, lengths, abaxial tooth >> others

21. Abaxial awn hooked ..... C. clevelandii

21' Abaxial awn straight

22. Outer perianth lobes entire or ± 2-lobed, inner jagged; stamens 9; Outer South Coast Ranges ..... C. rectispina

22' Outer perianth lobes with 1 or 3 teeth, inner entire; stamens 3; s Sierra Nevada, e Central Western California, n Western Transverse Ranges ..... C. uniaristata

20' Involucre teeth of equal or alternating lengths, abaxial tooth not >> others

23. Perianth lobes all or at least inner fringed or 2-lobed

24. Outer and inner perianth lobes fringed — Southwestern California ..... C. fimbriata

25. Perianth lobes with terminal segment linear to lanceolate, wider than lateral; flower 6–7(8) mm ..... var. fimbriata

25' Perianth lobes with terminal segment linear, barely wider than lateral; flower 8–9(10) mm ..... var. laciniata

24' Outer and/or inner perianth lobes not fringed

26. Perianth lobes white to ± pink

27. Inner perianth lobes 2-lobed ..... C. blakleyi

27' Inner perianth lobes fringed ..... C. obovata

26' Perianth lobes red, rose, maroon, or dark purple

28. Outer perianth lobes entire; involucre tube 3.5–4 mm, awns 0.5–1 mm ..... C. palmeri

28' Outer perianth lobes 2-lobed or minutely jagged; involucre tube 4–6 mm, awns 0.5–2 mm

29. Outer perianth lobes minutely jagged or wavy-margined, inner fringed or ± 2-lobed; flower 4–4.5 mm; involucre tube 4–4.5 mm, swollen; Inner South Coast Ranges ..... C. ventricosa

29' Outer perianth lobes 2-lobed or notched, inner fringed; flower (4.5)5–6 mm; involucre tube 4–6 mm, ± swollen; South Coast Ranges ..... C. biloba

30. Outer perianth lobes deeply 2-lobed ..... var. biloba

30' Outer perianth lobes notched or ± cordate at tip ..... var. immemora

23' Perianth lobes entire, awned, or minutely jagged

31. Perianth lobes alike, outer and inner similar in width and length

32. Plant generally erect; branches breaking at nodes; stamens 3, fused to perianth tube top ..... C. brevicornu

33. Leaf blades 1–3(5) mm wide; involucres ribbed ..... var. brevicornu

33' Leaf blades 5–10 mm wide; involucres obscurely ribbed ..... var. spathulata

32' Plant prostrate to erect; branches not breaking at nodes; stamens 3–9 and fused to perianth tube base or (6)9 and fused to perianth tube top

34. Stamens fused to perianth tube top; perianth lobes entire or minutely notched; California Floristic Province ..... C. polygonoides

35. Involucre tube 1.5–2 mm, awns of prominent teeth 2–3 mm; Peninsular Ranges ..... var. longispina

35' Involucre tube 2–2.5 mm, awns of prominent teeth 1.5–2 mm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California ..... var. polygonoides (2)

34' Stamens fused to perianth tube base; perianth lobes entire, awned, or minutely jagged

36. Perianth lobes entire; stamens united basally — c&s South Coast, s Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges ..... C. procumbens

36' Perianth lobes awned or minutely jagged; stamens free

37. Plants sparsely hairy, yellow-green; flowers 1.5–2 mm, sparsely hairy abaxially — c Central Coast (Fort Ord, nw Monterey Co.) ..... C. minutiflora

37' Plants densely hairy, tannish to reddish or grayish; flowers 2–3.5 mm, hairy abaxially

38. Perianth lobes minutely jagged; Central Coast (Monterey and Santa Cruz cos. south to Santa Barbara Co.) ..... C. angustifolia (2)

38' Perianth lobes awned; n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area (San Francisco Peninsula)

39. Involucre awns hooked, teeth with or without scarious margins; n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. cuspidata var. cuspidata (2)

39' Involucre awns straight, teeth without scarious margins; n Central Coast ..... C. cuspidata var. villosa

31' Perianth lobes not alike, inner narrower and shorter

40. Involucre awns straight

41. Involucre tube 1.5–2 mm; Western Transverse Ranges ..... C. parryi var. fernandina

41' Involucre tube 3–4(4.5) mm; n Central Coast ..... C. valida (2)

40' Involucre awns hooked

42. Involucre tube 1.5–2 mm — Transverse Ranges ..... C. parryi var. parryi

42' Involucre tube 2.5–6 mm

43. Proximal leaf-like bracts of stem early-deciduous or 0

44. Flower 4.5–6 mm; e Peninsular Ranges ..... C. leptotheca

44' Flower 3–4(5) mm; c&s Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California (except e Peninsular Ranges) ..... C. staticoides

43' Proximal leaf-like bracts of stem persistent

45. Flower 4.5–6 mm, long exserted from involucre ..... C. xanti

46. Involucre densely hairy; e San Bernardino Mountains, n San Jacinto Mountains ..... var. leucotheca

46' Involucre thinly hairy; s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Inner South Coast Ranges, n&e Transverse Ranges (except e San Bernardino Mountains), East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. xanti

45' Flower 2.5–3.5 mm, ± exserted from involucre

47. Flower 3–3.5 mm; involucre tube 2.5–3 mm; stamens 9; Outer South Coast Ranges ..... C. breweri

47' Flower 2.5–3 mm; involucre tube 2–2.5 mm; stamens 6; n Channel Islands ..... C. wheeleri

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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