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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, generally from rhizomes.
Stem: 1–15 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes (1)2–8.
Leaf: generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled.
Inflorescence: panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed.
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 3–5, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin.
± 265 species (including Deyeuxia): cool temperate (especially moist montane); some forage value. (Greek: reed grass) [Marr et al. 2007 FNANM 24:706–732] Hybridization, polyploidy (diploids unknown), and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
Unabridged references: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]
1. Awn exserted 1–10 mm beyond glume tips, twisted and bent
2. Panicle open, branches spreading to ascending
3. Plant from rhizomes; stem 5–15 dm; leaf blade generally cauline, 3–10 mm wide, flat; coastal, < 500 m ..... C. bolanderi
3' Plant cespitose, rhizomes 0; stem generally 1.2–5.4 dm; leaf blade generally basal, 0.2–1.7 mm wide, inrolled to flat; > 1500 m
4. Lf blade 7–11-veined, tip prow-shaped; inflorescence (4)5.7–8.5 cm; callus hairs 0.3–1.2 mm ..... C. breweri (2)
4' Lf blade 3–5-veined, tip straight-sided; inflorescence 1.9–5.7(7.5) cm; callus hairs 0.3–0.6 mm ..... C. muiriana (2)
2' Panicle dense, narrow, branches ascending to appressed
5. Awn 12–15(17) mm, exserted 4–10 mm beyond the glume tips; glumes 8–10 mm ..... C. foliosa
5' Awn (4.6)5–7.5(9) mm, exserted 1–3 mm beyond the glume tips; glumes 4.5–8 mm
6. Lf blade with small white-opaque hooks between the veins visible only with magnification, upper surface scabrous; generally on serpentine soils, < 1065 m ..... C. ophitidis (2)
6' Lf blade without small white-opaque hooks between the veins, upper surface soft-hairy; generally on rocky slopes, sandy soils, 1300–4000 m ..... C. purpurascens (2)
1' Awn included or occasionally prolonged < 1 mm beyond glume tips, straight or twisted and bent
7. Lf blade 0.2–1.7 mm wide; panicle 1.9–8.5 cm; callus hairs sparse
8. Lf blade 7–11-veined, tip prow-shaped; panicle (4)5.7–8.5 cm; callus hairs 0.3–1.2 mm ..... C. breweri (2)
8' Lf blade 3–5-veined, tip straight-sided; panicle 1.9–5.7(7.5) cm; callus hairs 0.3–0.6 mm ..... C. muiriana (2)
7' Lf blade (1.5)2–10(20) mm wide; panicle 4–30 cm; callus hairs abundant or sparse
9. Panicle ± open, lower branches spreading to ascending
10. Lf collar generally puberulent or hairy-tufted; callus hairs < 2 mm ..... C. rubescens (2)
10' Lf collar smooth or scabrous, rarely hairy; callus hairs (1.5)2–3.5(4.5) mm
11. Glumes 5–7(7.5) mm; stems generally unbranched below with 1–2(3) nodes per stem; ligules 1–4 mm, entire, truncate, generally hidden by expanded collar below ..... C. nutkaensis
11' Glumes 3–4.5 mm; stems generally branched below with (2)3–8 nodes per stem; ligules 3–8 mm, irregularly cut, obtuse to acute, not hidden by expanded collar below ..... C. canadensis
12. Glumes smooth or scabrous, projections along keel straight, tips acute (acuminate); spikelets 2.5–3.5(4) mm ..... var. canadensis
12' Glumes scabrous across entire surface, rarely smooth, projections along keel often bent, tips acuminate; spikelets (3.5)4–4.5(5.2) mm ..... var. langsdorffii
9' Panicle ± dense, narrow, lower branches appressed (occasionally ascending in C. rubescens, C. stricta)
13. Glumes generally < than 3 × longer than wide ..... C. stricta
14. Glumes 3–6 mm, generally thick, margin opaque; callus hairs 2–4.5 mm; spikelet axis 1–1.5 mm; longest panicle branches 1.5–9.5 cm ..... subsp. inexpansa
14' Glumes 2–3(3.5) mm, generally thin, margin ± translucent; callus hairs 1–3 mm; spikelet axis 0.5–1 mm; longest panicle branches 1.5–4 cm ..... subsp. stricta
13' Glumes generally > 3 × longer than wide
15. Lf blade with small white-opaque hooks between the veins visible only with magnification ..... C. ophitidis (2)
15' Lf blade without small white-opaque hooks between the veins
16. Lf blade generally soft-hairy on the upper surface ..... C. purpurascens (2)
16' Lf blade smooth or scabrous but not soft-hairy on the upper surface
17. Awn 4–5.5 mm; leaf collar scabrous or smooth; rhizomes 2–6 cm, 2–4 mm thick, stout ..... C. koelerioides
17' Awn 2–4 mm; leaf collar generally puberulent or hairy-tufted; rhizomes 10–20 cm, 1.5–2 mm thick, slender ..... C. rubescens (2)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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