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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, fleshy, glabrous, bisexual.
Stem: generally caudex- or corm-like, branched or not, ± covered with dried leaves.
Leaf: in rosettes, evergreen or ± deciduous in summer (withering, falling or not), waxy or not, base wounding purple-red (yellow) or generally not.
Inflorescence: cyme; flower bracts ± subtending pedicels, < bracts; bracts alternate.
Flower: sepals 5, fused below; petals 5, fused at base, erect to spreading above; stamens 10, epipetalous; carpels 5, ± fused below.
Fruit: follicles 5, erect to spreading, many-seeded.
Seed: < 1 mm, narrowly ovoid, brown, striate.
± 46 species: sw North America; some used as groundcover or cultivated for ornamental. (W.R. Dudley, 1st head of Botany Department, Stanford University, 1849–1911) [Thiede 2003 in Eggli (ed.) Illus Handbook Succulent Plants 6 (Crassulaceae):85–103. Springer] Fr just before opening generally most reliable for orientation; insect damage may cause branching in taxa characterized as non-branching.
Unabridged note: Whether or not leaves of Dudleya cymosa subsp. costatifolia, Dudleya saxosa subsp. saxosa, Dudleya variegata wound purple-red, red, yellow, or some other color at base when removed is evidently unknown.
1. St below surface, not elongate, generally simple; leaves vernal, ± petioled (basally generally < 1 cm wide, generally narrowed to < 4 mm wide) — petals, fruit generally spreading (subg. Hasseanthus)
2. Fl odor 0; petals yellow; fruit spreading
3. Lvs 4–15 cm, linear, ± narrowed above base, tip sharply acute; petals fused 1–2 mm ..... D. multicaulis
3' Lvs 1–7 cm, oblanceolate to spoon-shaped, strongly narrowed above base (to generally 0.5–3 mm wide) tip acute to obtuse; petals fused 0.5–1 mm ..... D. variegata
2' Fl odor musky-sweet; petals white to pale yellow; fruit ascending to spreading
4. Petals ascending, 7–14 mm, 3.5–5.5 mm wide, fused 1–2 mm; fruit ascending; leaf base 3–12 mm wide ..... D. nesiotica
4' Petals spreading, 5–10 mm, 2–4 mm wide, fused generally < 1 mm; fruit spreading; leaf base 1–4 mm wide
5. Lower bracts < 1.5 × longer than wide; leaves 7–15 mm, ± spheric to spoon-shaped; petiole narrow ..... D. brevifolia
5' Lower bracts > 2 × longer than wide; leaves 10–60 mm, ± oblanceolate to club-shaped; petiole ± narrow ..... D. blochmaniae
6. Lvs generally < 12, not to ± glaucous; s CCo, SCo, Santa Cruz Island ..... subsp. blochmaniae
6' Lvs generally > 15, glaucous or ± so; n ChI (Santa Rosa Island) ..... subsp. insularis (2)
1' St above surface or ± buried by moving substrate, often elongate, often branched; leaves generally evergreen, ± not petioled (basally generally 1–5 cm wide, generally not narrowed to < 4 mm wide)
7. Petals erect below, ± spreading from near middle; fruit ascending to spreading
8. St generally < 3 cm between branches; plant generally < 2 dm across; mainland
9. Lvs sticky, appearing oily, odor resinous ..... D. viscida
9' Lvs not sticky, not appearing oily, odor 0 or not resinous
10. Lvs covered with white powdery wax, appearing white; styles 2–3 mm; pedicels 2–5 mm; SnGb (Los Angeles Co.) ..... D. densiflora
10' Lvs lightly covered with thin, translucent wax, appearing olive-green; styles 1–2 mm; pedicels 1–2 mm; SCo, PR ..... D. edulis
8' St generally > 3 cm between branches; plant 0.5–10 dm across; mainland or ChI
11. Lvs in ×-section round nearly to base, 2–4 mm thick ..... D. attenuata subsp. attenuata
11' Lvs in ×-section ± elliptic or in upper 1/2 round, 4–6 mm thick ..... D. virens
12. Lvs green, rarely glaucous; outer leaves lax to erect; dry peduncle easily broken; s ChI (San Clemente Island) ..... subsp. virens
12' Lvs white, gray, or green, occasionally with red or pink, generally glaucous; outer leaves ascending to erect; dry peduncle not easily broken; SCo (near San Pedro, Los Angeles Co.), s ChI (San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands)
13. Lvs ± round in ×-section in upper 1/2, 15–30, 3–10(15) cm, 5–10(15) mm wide; peduncle 10–30 cm, ascending or erect ..... subsp. hassei
13' Lvs ± wide-elliptic in ×-section in upper 1/2, 20–50, 6–25 cm, 10–32 mm wide; peduncle 6–70 cm, erect ..... subsp. insularis (2)
7' Petals erect below, erect to ascending from near middle, ± spreading at tips; fruit generally erect to ± spreading
14. Petals fused ± 1/2 length; pedicels in fruit often sharply bent; rosette white, 7–60 cm across
15. St 1–4 cm wide; leaves 15–25, generally 5–15 cm; pedicels 5–15(20) mm; flowers generally erect ..... D. arizonica
15' St 4–9 cm wide; leaves 40–60, 8–25(27) cm; pedicels 5–30(35) mm; flowers pendent ..... D. pulverulenta
14' Petals fused < 1/3 length; pedicels in fruit not sharply bent; rosette green or white, 0.5–55 cm across
16. Petals adaxially cream, white, or pale yellow, margins ± jagged or not; petal keel ± not raised, ± marked with red-pink or purple
17. St often > 8 cm, 10–80 mm wide; peduncle 4.5–54 cm; leaf 2.5–22 cm
18. St swollen at base; leaf ± thin; rosettes generally 1 ..... D. candelabrum
18' St not swollen at base; leaf ± thick; rosettes 1–100+
19. Lf tip generally obtuse, margin with >= 2 angles between ad-, abaxial surfaces; upper margins of adjacent petals not touching; NCo, n&c CCo ..... D. farinosa
19' Lf tip generally acute, margin with 0–1(2) angles between ad-, abaxial surfaces; upper margins of adjacent petals generally touching; n ChI ..... D. greenei
17' St < 8 cm, 1.5–30 mm wide; peduncle 2–25(40) cm; leaf 0.5–11 cm
20. Lf wounding red or purple-red at base; inflorescence 1° branches generally simple
21. Lf ± deciduous in summer, ± round in ×-section; petals often purple-tinged near tip, with few purple flecks; s CCo, s SCoRO (San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... D. abramsii subsp. bettinae
21' Lf generally dry but ± not deciduous in summer; ± elliptic in ×-section; petals not purple-tinged near tip, with purple-flecks throughout or not
22. Lower bracts 10–30 mm; s SCoRO (San Luis Obispo Co.); on serpentine ..... D. abramsii subsp. murina
22' Lower bracts 4–15 mm; s SNH, PR; not on serpentine, generally on granite ..... D. abramsii subsp. abramsii
20' Lf generally not wounding red or purple-red at base; inflorescence 1° branches simple to branched
23. Lf triangular to triangular-ovate; petals pale yellow to medium yellow; insular (Santa Rosa Island) ..... D. gnoma (2)
23' Lf not triangular to triangular-ovate; petals ± pale yellow; not insular
24. Rosettes 1–few; not on granite or limestone, often on serpentine or volcanics
25. Infl 1° branches generally simple; pedicels 2–7 mm; peduncle 5–20 cm; se SnFrB (s Santa Clara Valley); on serpentine ..... D. abramsii subsp. setchellii
25' Infl 1° branches often branched; pedicels 3–12 mm; peduncle 5–25(40) cm; SnJV, SnFrB, SCoRI (Contra Costa Co. to w Fresno Co.); on serpentine or not ..... D. cymosa subsp. paniculata
24' Rosettes 1–50; on granite or limestone
26. Lvs lance-oblong to lanceolate to subcylindric; inflorescence 1° branches generally branched; s SNH ..... D. abramsii subsp. calcicola
26' Lvs elliptic to oblanceolate; inflorescence 1° branches generally simple; SnBr ..... D. abramsii subsp. affinis
16' Petals adaxially red, orange, yellow, yellow-green, or bright yellow-green, margins entire; petal keel often raised, rarely marked with red-pink or purple
27. Plant stoloned or stem branched; fruit ascending
28. Plant stoloned; c SCo (San Joaquin Hills, Orange Co.) ..... D. stolonifera
28' Plant stem branched; ChI (Santa Barbara Co.) ..... D. traskiae
27' Plant simple or branched by stems; fruit ± erect
29. Plant generally < 10 cm wide (except in deep shade or yrs with high rainfall); leaves 0.8–3 × longer than wide
30. Peduncle erect, inflorescence ± symmetric radially, 1° branches generally 3
31. Internodes between bracts < 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. crebrifolia (2)
31' Internodes between bracts generally > 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. pumila
30' Peduncle ascending, inflorescence ± asymmetric radially, sometimes by pedicels turning to sun or away from cliff, 1° branches (0)2–3 (or, if peduncle erect and inflorescence symmetric radially, 1° branches generally 2)
32. Lvs in summer ± deciduous, papery when dry; bracts plump ..... D. cymosa subsp. marcescens
32' Lvs in summer ± not deciduous, ± tough when dry; bracts not or ± plump
33. Lvs adaxially dark green, abaxially ± red; bracts ± spreading ..... D. cymosa subsp. ovatifolia
33' Lvs adaxially, abaxially ± equally colored; bracts ascending
34. Lvs oblong to lanceolate, tips acute; petals bright yellow; inflorescence branches 2(3); s WTR (Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. cymosa subsp. agourensis (2)
34' Lvs ovate or deltate to oblanceolate or spoon-shaped, tips acuminate to mucronate; petals bright yellow, orange, or red; inflorescence branches generally >= 3; NCoR, CaR, SN, CW, s WTR (Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. cymosa subsp. cymosa
29' Plant 0.5–100 cm+ wide; leaves (2.5)3–10 × longer than wide
35. St generally 0.15–2 cm wide; 1° inflorescence branches generally 2, branched generally 0–1 ×
36. Lvs deciduous in summer; n-facing volcanic cliffs, adjacent grassland; WTR (n of Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. parva
36' Lvs dry in summer but ± not deciduous; level or sloping habitats of various orientations; n ChI, WTR (Santa Monica Mtns)
37. Lvs white, 5–13 mm; n ChI (Santa Rosa Island) ..... D. gnoma (2)
37' Lvs gray-white or white with some purple-red to gray-green showing through wax, 20–100 mm; mainland
38. Lvs generally twisted when dry, base wounding purple-red; flower bud tips angled ± 35°; petals green- to lemon-yellow ..... D. verityi
38' Lvs occasionally twisted when dry, base not or ± wounding purple-red; flower bud tips angled >= 50°; petals bright yellow ..... D. cymosa subsp. agourensis (2)
35' St 1–10 cm wide; 1° inflorescence branches generally >= 3, branched 0–3 ×
39. Rosettes 5–40, dense; leaves 2.5–8 mm wide, linear to linear-oblanceolate ..... D. cymosa subsp. costatifolia
39' Rosettes 1–100, generally not dense; leaves generally > 8 mm wide, lanceolate to oblanceolate
40. St of older plants often exposed between dried leaves; leaves adaxially generally convex (transversely), tip margins generally not angled between ad-, abaxial surfaces; petals bright yellow (orange-yellow) ..... D. caespitosa
40' St of older plants covered by dried leaves; leaves adaxially flat or convex (transversely), tip margins often angled between ad-, abaxial surfaces; petals bright yellow, red, tinged with red, red over yellow but appearing orange-pink, ± green, or green-yellow
41. St (2)4–10 cm wide; peduncle 15–85 cm; petals red over yellow but appearing orange-pink ..... D. palmeri
41' St 1–3 cm wide; peduncle 5–95 cm; petals bright yellow, red over yellow but appearing orange-pink, mustard-, or green-yellow
42. Internodes between bracts < 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. crebrifolia (2)
42' Internodes between bracts > 5 mm
43. Lvs 5–30 cm, 1–4 cm wide; peduncle 1.5–9.5 dm; petals fused 1–2 mm ..... D. lanceolata
43' Lvs 3–15 cm, 0.3–2.5 cm wide; peduncle 0.5–5.1 dm; petals fused 1–4 mm ..... D. saxosa
44. St 1–3 cm wide; leaves 4–15 cm; peduncle 1–5.1 dm; petals ± green, green-yellow, or bright yellow, rarely red-tinged ..... subsp. aloides
44' St 1–1.5 cm wide; leaves 3–9 cm; peduncle 0.5–2 dm; petals bright yellow, generally red-tinged ..... subsp. saxosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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