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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

DUDLEYA DUDLEYA, LIVEFOREVER

Stephen Ward McCabe


Perennial herb, fleshy, glabrous, bisexual. Stem: generally caudex- or corm-like, branched or not, ± covered with dried leaves. Leaf: in rosettes, evergreen or ± deciduous in summer (withering, falling or not), waxy or not, base wounding purple-red (yellow) or generally not. Inflorescence: cyme; flower bracts ± subtending pedicels, < bracts; bracts alternate. Flower: sepals 5, fused below; petals 5, fused at base, erect to spreading above; stamens 10, epipetalous; carpels 5, ± fused below. Fruit: follicles 5, erect to spreading, many-seeded. Seed: < 1 mm, narrowly ovoid, brown, striate.
± 46 species: southwestern North America; some used as groundcover or cultivated for ornamental. (W.R. Dudley, 1st head of Botany Department, Stanford University, 1849–1911) [Thiede 2003 in Eggli (ed.) Illus Handbook Succulent Plants 6 (Crassulaceae):85–103. Springer] Fruit just before opening generally most reliable for orientation; insect damage may cause branching in taxa characterized as non-branching.
Unabridged note: Whether or not leaves of Dudleya cymosa subsp. costatifolia, Dudleya saxosa subsp. saxosa, Dudleya variegata wound purple-red, red, yellow, or some other color at base when removed is evidently unknown.

Key to Dudleya

1. Stem below surface, not elongate, generally simple; leaves vernal, ± petioled (basally generally < 1 cm wide, generally narrowed to < 4 mm wide) — petals, fruit generally spreading (subg. Hasseanthus)

2. Flower odor 0; petals yellow; fruit spreading

3. Leaves 4–15 cm, linear, ± narrowed above base, tip sharply acute; petals fused 1–2 mm ..... D. multicaulis

3' Leaves 1–7 cm, oblanceolate to spoon-shaped, strongly narrowed above base (to generally 0.5–3 mm wide) tip acute to obtuse; petals fused 0.5–1 mm ..... D. variegata

2' Flower odor musky-sweet; petals white to pale yellow; fruit ascending to spreading

4. Petals ascending, 7–14 mm, 3.5–5.5 mm wide, fused 1–2 mm; fruit ascending; leaf base 3–12 mm wide ..... D. nesiotica

4' Petals spreading, 5–10 mm, 2–4 mm wide, fused generally < 1 mm; fruit spreading; leaf base 1–4 mm wide

5. Lower bracts < 1.5 × longer than wide; leaves 7–15 mm, ± spheric to spoon-shaped; petiole narrow ..... D. brevifolia

5' Lower bracts > 2 × longer than wide; leaves 10–60 mm, ± oblanceolate to club-shaped; petiole ± narrow ..... D. blochmaniae

6. Leaves generally < 12, not to ± glaucous; s Central Coast, South Coast, Santa Cruz Island ..... subsp. blochmaniae

6' Leaves generally > 15, glaucous or ± so; n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island) ..... subsp. insularis (2)

1' Stem above surface or ± buried by moving substrate, often elongate, often branched; leaves generally evergreen, ± not petioled (basally generally 1–5 cm wide, generally not narrowed to < 4 mm wide)

7. Petals erect below, ± spreading from near middle; fruit ascending to spreading

8. Stem generally < 3 cm between branches; plant generally < 2 dm across; mainland

9. Leaves sticky, appearing oily, odor resinous ..... D. viscida

9' Leaves not sticky, not appearing oily, odor 0 or not resinous

10. Leaves covered with white powdery wax, appearing white; styles 2–3 mm; pedicels 2–5 mm; San Gabriel Mountains (Los Angeles Co.) ..... D. densiflora

10' Leaves lightly covered with thin, translucent wax, appearing olive-green; styles 1–2 mm; pedicels 1–2 mm; South Coast, Peninsular Ranges ..... D. edulis

8' Stem generally > 3 cm between branches; plant 0.5–10 dm across; mainland or Channel Islands

11. Leaves in ×-section round nearly to base, 2–4 mm thick ..... D. attenuata subsp. attenuata

11' Leaves in ×-section ± elliptic or in upper 1/2 round, 4–6 mm thick ..... D. virens

12. Leaves green, rarely glaucous; outer leaves lax to erect; dry peduncle easily broken; s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... subsp. virens

12' Leaves white, gray, or green, occasionally with red or pink, generally glaucous; outer leaves ascending to erect; dry peduncle not easily broken; South Coast (near San Pedro, Los Angeles Co.), s Channel Islands (San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands)

13. Leaves ± round in ×-section in upper 1/2, 15–30, 3–10(15) cm, 5–10(15) mm wide; peduncle 10–30 cm, ascending or erect ..... subsp. hassei

13' Leaves ± wide-elliptic in ×-section in upper 1/2, 20–50, 6–25 cm, 10–32 mm wide; peduncle 6–70 cm, erect ..... subsp. insularis (2)

7' Petals erect below, erect to ascending from near middle, ± spreading at tips; fruit generally erect to ± spreading

14. Petals fused ± 1/2 length; pedicels in fruit often sharply bent; rosette white, 7–60 cm across

15. Stem 1–4 cm wide; leaves 15–25, generally 5–15 cm; pedicels 5–15(20) mm; flowers generally erect ..... D. arizonica

15' Stem 4–9 cm wide; leaves 40–60, 8–25(27) cm; pedicels 5–30(35) mm; flowers pendent ..... D. pulverulenta

14' Petals fused < 1/3 length; pedicels in fruit not sharply bent; rosette green or white, 0.5–55 cm across

16. Petals adaxially cream, white, or pale yellow, margins ± jagged or not; petal keel ± not raised, ± marked with red-pink or purple

17. Stem often > 8 cm, 10–80 mm wide; peduncle 4.5–54 cm; leaf 2.5–22 cm

18. Stem swollen at base; leaf ± thin; rosettes generally 1 ..... D. candelabrum

18' Stem not swollen at base; leaf ± thick; rosettes 1–100+

19. Leaf tip generally obtuse, margin with >= 2 angles between ad-, abaxial surfaces; upper margins of adjacent petals not touching; North Coast, n&c Central Coast ..... D. farinosa

19' Leaf tip generally acute, margin with 0–1(2) angles between ad-, abaxial surfaces; upper margins of adjacent petals generally touching; n Channel Islands ..... D. greenei

17' Stem < 8 cm, 1.5–30 mm wide; peduncle 2–25(40) cm; leaf 0.5–11 cm

20. Leaf wounding red or purple-red at base; inflorescence 1° branches generally simple

21. Leaf ± deciduous in summer, ± round in ×-section; petals often purple-tinged near tip, with few purple flecks; s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... D. abramsii subsp. bettinae

21' Leaf generally dry but ± not deciduous in summer; ± elliptic in ×-section; petals not purple-tinged near tip, with purple-flecks throughout or not

22. Lower bracts 10–30 mm; s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co.); on serpentine ..... D. abramsii subsp. murina

22' Lower bracts 4–15 mm; s High Sierra Nevada, Peninsular Ranges; not on serpentine, generally on granite ..... D. abramsii subsp. abramsii

20' Leaf generally not wounding red or purple-red at base; inflorescence 1° branches simple to branched

23. Leaf triangular to triangular-ovate; petals pale yellow to medium yellow; insular (Santa Rosa Island) ..... D. gnoma (2)

23' Leaf not triangular to triangular-ovate; petals ± pale yellow; not insular

24. Rosettes 1–few; not on granite or limestone, often on serpentine or volcanics

25. Inflorescence 1° branches generally simple; pedicels 2–7 mm; peduncle 5–20 cm; se San Francisco Bay Area (s Santa Clara Valley); on serpentine ..... D. abramsii subsp. setchellii

25' Inflorescence 1° branches often branched; pedicels 3–12 mm; peduncle 5–25(40) cm; San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges (Contra Costa Co. to w Fresno Co.); on serpentine or not ..... D. cymosa subsp. paniculata

24' Rosettes 1–50; on granite or limestone

26. Leaves lance-oblong to lanceolate to subcylindric; inflorescence 1° branches generally branched; s High Sierra Nevada ..... D. abramsii subsp. calcicola

26' Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate; inflorescence 1° branches generally simple; San Bernardino Mountains ..... D. abramsii subsp. affinis

16' Petals adaxially red, orange, yellow, yellow-green, or bright yellow-green, margins entire; petal keel often raised, rarely marked with red-pink or purple

27. Plant stoloned or stem branched; fruit ascending

28. Plant stoloned; c South Coast (San Joaquin Hills, Orange Co.) ..... D. stolonifera

28' Plant stem branched; Channel Islands (Santa Barbara Co.) ..... D. traskiae

27' Plant simple or branched by stems; fruit ± erect

29. Plant generally < 10 cm wide (except in deep shade or years with high rainfall); leaves 0.8–3 × longer than wide

30. Peduncle erect, inflorescence ± symmetric radially, 1° branches generally 3

31. Internodes between bracts < 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. crebrifolia (2)

31' Internodes between bracts generally > 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. pumila

30' Peduncle ascending, inflorescence ± asymmetric radially, sometimes by pedicels turning to sun or away from cliff, 1° branches (0)2–3 (or, if peduncle erect and inflorescence symmetric radially, 1° branches generally 2)

32. Leaves in summer ± deciduous, papery when dry; bracts plump ..... D. cymosa subsp. marcescens

32' Leaves in summer ± not deciduous, ± tough when dry; bracts not or ± plump

33. Leaves adaxially dark green, abaxially ± red; bracts ± spreading ..... D. cymosa subsp. ovatifolia

33' Leaves adaxially, abaxially ± equally colored; bracts ascending

34. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, tips acute; petals bright yellow; inflorescence branches 2(3); s Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. cymosa subsp. agourensis (2)

34' Leaves ovate or deltate to oblanceolate or spoon-shaped, tips acuminate to mucronate; petals bright yellow, orange, or red; inflorescence branches generally >= 3; North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, s Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. cymosa subsp. cymosa

29' Plant 0.5–100 cm+ wide; leaves (2.5)3–10 × longer than wide

35. Stem generally 0.15–2 cm wide; 1° inflorescence branches generally 2, branched generally 0–1 ×

36. Leaves deciduous in summer; n-facing volcanic cliffs, adjacent grassland; Western Transverse Ranges (n of Santa Monica Mtns) ..... D. parva

36' Leaves dry in summer but ± not deciduous; level or sloping habitats of various orientations; n Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns)

37. Leaves white, 5–13 mm; n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island) ..... D. gnoma (2)

37' Leaves gray-white or white with some purple-red to gray-green showing through wax, 20–100 mm; mainland

38. Leaves generally twisted when dry, base wounding purple-red; flower bud tips angled ± 35°; petals green- to lemon-yellow ..... D. verityi

38' Leaves occasionally twisted when dry, base not or ± wounding purple-red; flower bud tips angled >= 50°; petals bright yellow ..... D. cymosa subsp. agourensis (2)

35' Stem 1–10 cm wide; 1° inflorescence branches generally >= 3, branched 0–3 ×

39. Rosettes 5–40, dense; leaves 2.5–8 mm wide, linear to linear-oblanceolate ..... D. cymosa subsp. costatifolia

39' Rosettes 1–100, generally not dense; leaves generally > 8 mm wide, lanceolate to oblanceolate

40. Stem of older plants often exposed between dried leaves; leaves adaxially generally convex (transversely), tip margins generally not angled between ad-, abaxial surfaces; petals bright yellow (orange-yellow) ..... D. caespitosa

40' Stem of older plants covered by dried leaves; leaves adaxially flat or convex (transversely), tip margins often angled between ad-, abaxial surfaces; petals bright yellow, red, tinged with red, red over yellow but appearing orange-pink, ± green, or green-yellow

41. Stem (2)4–10 cm wide; peduncle 15–85 cm; petals red over yellow but appearing orange-pink ..... D. palmeri

41' Stem 1–3 cm wide; peduncle 5–95 cm; petals bright yellow, red over yellow but appearing orange-pink, mustard-, or green-yellow

42. Internodes between bracts < 5 mm ..... D. cymosa subsp. crebrifolia (2)

42' Internodes between bracts > 5 mm

43. Leaves 5–30 cm, 1–4 cm wide; peduncle 1.5–9.5 dm; petals fused 1–2 mm ..... D. lanceolata

43' Leaves 3–15 cm, 0.3–2.5 cm wide; peduncle 0.5–5.1 dm; petals fused 1–4 mm ..... D. saxosa

44. Stem 1–3 cm wide; leaves 4–15 cm; peduncle 1–5.1 dm; petals ± green, green-yellow, or bright yellow, rarely red-tinged ..... subsp. aloides

44' Stem 1–1.5 cm wide; leaves 3–9 cm; peduncle 0.5–2 dm; petals bright yellow, generally red-tinged ..... subsp. saxosa

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