Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Silene

View taxon page for Silene

1. Annual, biennial, taproot generally slender

2. Calyx tube clearly 16–30-veined

3. Styles 5; petal limb ± entire to 2-lobed; fruit teeth 10; flower pistillate ..... S. latifolia (3)

3' Styles generally 3; petal limb entire to notched; fruit teeth 3; flower bisexual

4. Calyx 8–12 mm; petal appendages 0 ..... S. coniflora

4' Calyx 18–26 mm; petal appendages 2–5 mm ..... S. conoidea

2' Calyx tube clearly 10-veined

5. Pedicel, calyx glabrous

6. Upper leaves linear to oblanceolate; upper internodes generally sticky; calyx not constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. antirrhina

6' Upper leaves oblanceolate to ovate; upper internodes not sticky; calyx constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. armeria

5' Pedicel, calyx hairy

7. Pedicels 0–5 mm; flowers generally 1 per node; inflorescence ± 1-sided

8. Calyx densely short-hairy, not glandular; petal limb 5–12 mm, lobed >= 1/2 length; styles exserted; inflorescence bracts thin, ± translucent ..... S. dichotoma subsp. dichotoma

8' Calyx glandular-hairy especially on veins; petal limb 2–5 mm, entire to notched; styles included; inflorescence bracts thick, opaque ..... S. gallica

7' Some pedicels > 5 mm; some nodes with 2–3 flowers; inflorescence not 1-sided

9. Petals bright pink; calyx lobes 2–3 mm

10. Petals 2-lobed ..... [S. pendula]

10' Petals entire ..... [S. pseudatocion]

9' Petals white, yellow-white, or ± pink; calyx lobes 3–13 mm

11. Calyx tube veins not clearly net-like, lobes generally 3–6 mm, acute to acuminate; flowers staminate ..... S. latifolia (3)

11' Calyx tube veins net-like above middle, lobes 6–13 mm, generally long-tapered; flowers bisexual ..... S. noctiflora

1' Perennial herb, from rhizome or simple to branched, woody caudex

12. Corolla bright red

13. Petal lobes 2–4; plants 4–10(15) cm ..... S. serpentinicola

13' Petal lobes 4–6; plants 20–70 cm ..... S. laciniata

14. Cauline leaves widely lanceolate to ovate; fruit ovoid ..... subsp. californica

14' Cauline leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; fruit ± oblong to ovoid ..... subsp. laciniata

12' Corolla white, ± red, purple, or yellow-white or -green to green

15. Calyx clearly ± inflated (papery in Silene vulgaris)

16. Calyx 12–20 mm, short-hairy, 10- or ± 20-veined, lobes 3–6 mm; fruit ovoid ..... S. latifolia (3)

16' Calyx 7–10 mm, generally glabrous, faintly 10–15-veined, lobes 1–3 mm; fruit ± spheric ..... S. vulgaris

15' Calyx not clearly inflated or papery in fruit

17. Petal claw tapered to limb; appendages 0

18. Calyx lobes 4–5 mm, slightly < tube; petal 4-lobed, claw ± fusiform, short-woolly below middle; s High Sierra Nevada ..... S. aperta

18' Calyx lobes 1–2 mm, << tube; petals entire to slightly notched, claw gradually tapered to limb, glabrous to sparsely short-hairy below middle; Klamath Ranges, s High Cascade Range, c&n High Sierra Nevada ..... S. invisa

17' Petal claw and limb junction generally abrupt, often narrowed; appendages 2–6, 0.5–4 mm

19. Petal limb 2-lobed, sometimes short-toothed near base

20. Basal, lower cauline leaves densely tufted, fleshy, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, generally < 40 mm, < 5 mm wide; flowering stems generally < 30 cm

21. Seeds 2–3 mm; calyx 8–10 mm; petal limb 3–5 mm; basal leaves 1–5 mm wide ..... S. grayi (2)

21' Seeds 1–2 mm; calyx 9–15 mm; petal limb 2.5–3.5 mm; basal leaves 1.5–3.5 mm wide

22. Walls between calyx hair cells clear; plant 10–15(20) cm; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. sargentii

22' Walls between calyx hair cells purple; plant 3–10 cm; calyx lobes 1–2 mm; High Cascade Range ..... S. suksdorfii

20' Basal leaves not densely tufted, not fleshy, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, some > 30 mm, > 5 mm wide; some flowering stems > 30 cm

23. Petals < 10 mm, calyx 5–7 mm; petal appendages < 0.5 mm ..... S. menziesii (2)

23' Petals > 10 mm, calyx 7–20 mm; petal appendages > 1 mm

24. Flowers nodding; stamens, styles much exserted ..... S. bridgesii

24' Flowers spreading to generally erect; stamens, styles ± not exserted

25. Pedicel, calyx puberulent, not glandular, rarely glabrous

26. Calyx base truncate to rounded in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes glabrous to sparsely puberulent ..... S. douglasii var. douglasii

26' Calyx base narrowed in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes moderately to densely puberulent, ± finely scabrous or not ..... S. verecunda (2)

25' Pedicel, calyx glandular-puberulent to -hairy

27. Basal leaves mostly > 10 mm wide, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or elliptic

28. Cauline leaves << basal leaves; cauline leaf pairs < 3; fruit stalk 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; calyx lobe veins wider than tube veins; > 1200 m ..... S. nuda

28' Cauline leaves gradually reduced upward; cauline leaf pairs > 4; fruit stalk 3–6 mm, puberulent to woolly; calyx lobe veins ± as wide as tube veins; < 300 m ..... S. scouleri subsp. scouleri

27' Basal, lower cauline leaves 0 or withering (if present, most < 10 mm wide, linear to narrowly oblanceolate)

29. Middle cauline leaves (3)5–10 mm wide; calyx lobe margins membranous ..... S. marmorensis

29' Middle cauline leaves < 6 mm wide; calyx lobe margin generally translucent ..... S. verecunda (2)

19' Petal limb generally 4–8-lobed

30. Calyx 15–40 mm; corolla 20–30 mm

31. Petals pink to rose-red, limbs 14–20 mm; s High Cascade Range ..... S. occidentalis (2)

31' Petals yellow-white, limbs 7–10 mm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, e Peninsular Ranges ..... S. parishii

30' Calyx 5–20(25) mm; corolla generally < 20 mm (< 50 mm in Silene occidentalis)

32. Calyx tube generally <= 10 mm

33. Calyx tube cylindric, length > width; stamens, styles > petal claws; petal claw short-woolly ..... S. lemmonii

33' Calyx tube bell-shaped or elliptic, length ± = width; stamens, styles = to ± > petal claws; petal claw glabrous or ciliate at base

34. Petals 5–11 mm, limb 2–4-lobed; fruit stalk glabrous; flowers generally ascending to erect; calyx lobes generally < 2 mm

35. Leaves linear to oblanceolate; internodes 2–3 × > leaves; calyx clearly veined; petal lobes 4, outer generally > inner ..... S. grayi (2)

35' Leaves lanceolate to elliptic; internodes < leaves; calyx faintly veined; petal lobes generally 2 ..... S. menziesii (2)

34' Petals 12–20 mm, limb 4–6(8)-lobed; fruit stalk puberulent; flowers nodding to ± spreading; calyx lobes 2–5 mm ..... S. campanulata

36. Leaves 2–10 mm wide, linear to lanceolate ..... subsp. campanulata

36' Leaves 10–30 mm wide, lanceolate to ± round ..... subsp. glandulosa

32' Calyx tube generally > 10 mm

37. Upper cauline leaves generally overlapping or exceeding pedicels; calyx canescent to soft-white-hairy; petal limb ± = claw, lobes > 10 mm

38. Stems glandular-puberulent above; petal lobes equal or outer < inner, ± linear or lanceolate to broadly oblong, 5–10 mm, appendages 2, linear; stamens included ..... S. hookeri

38' Stems soft-shaggy-hairy or canescent above; petal lobes equal, linear, 15–25 mm, stamens long-exserted.

39. Petal limb white with ± green center or ± pink, appendages 0 ..... S. bolanderi

39' Petal limb salmon-orange, appendages present ..... S. salmonacea

37' Flowers located well above cauline leaves; calyx short-glandular-hairy; petal limb 1/3–1/2 × claw, lobes < 8 mm

40. Fruit stalk 4–7 mm; petal limb 7–17 mm; calyx > 15 mm ..... S. occidentalis (2)

40' Fruit stalk 2–5 mm; petal limb 3–7 mm; calyx generally < 15(18) mm

41. Petal appendages 2, deeply cut or fringed; petal claw, stamen base ciliate ..... S. bernardina

41' Petal appendages 4–6, entire; petal claw, stamen base glabrous ..... S. oregana

Contact/Feedback

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.