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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

SILENE CATCHFLY, CAMPION

Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler & Dieter H. Wilken


Annual to perennial herb, ± erect, from caudex, taproot, or rhizome; rarely dioecious. Leaf: petioled or not; linear to oblanceolate, vein 1. Inflorescence: generally terminal, open to dense; flowers few to many, pedicels generally 5–40+ mm. Flower: generally erect, generally bisexual; sepals 5, fused, tube prominent, 4–38 mm, 2–13 mm diam, cylindric to bell-shaped, rounded, hairs various or 0 (walls between hair cells generally clear), veins generally 10+, generally dark, lobes or teeth 1–13 mm, < tube, triangular to linear; petals 5, 6–62 mm, claw long, limb entire or 2–6-lobed, appendages at junction of claw, limb 0–6, generally 2, basal lobes present or 0; stamens generally fertile, bases fused with petal bases to ovary stalk; ovary chamber 1 or ± incompletely 3–5, styles 3(4,5; if 5 then flowers unisexual, taxon dioecious), 1–35 mm. Fruit: capsule, cylindric to ovoid; stalk (from ovary stalk) 0–7 mm, generally glabrous; teeth 6 or 10, ascending to recurved. Seed: many, gray to red, brown, or black.
700 species: North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, introduced ± worldwide. (Greek: probably from mythological Silenus) [Morton 2005 FNANM 5:166–214] Oxelman et al. (2001 Nordic J Bot 20: 743–748) including data for disarticulation of Silene into four additional genera, including for California Lychnis (Lychnis coronaria) and Atocion (Atocion armeria (L.) Raf., as Silene armeria here).
Unabridged etymology: (Greek: probably from mythological Silenus, intoxicated foster-father of Bacchus, who was covered with foam; from sticky secretions of many species)

Key to Silene

1. Annual, biennial, taproot generally slender

2. Calyx tube clearly 16–30-veined

3. Styles 5; petal limb ± entire to 2-lobed; fruit teeth 10; flower pistillate ..... S. latifolia (3)

3' Styles generally 3; petal limb entire to notched; fruit teeth 3; flower bisexual

4. Calyx 8–12 mm; petal appendages 0 ..... S. coniflora

4' Calyx 18–26 mm; petal appendages 2–5 mm ..... S. conoidea

2' Calyx tube clearly 10-veined

5. Pedicel, calyx glabrous

6. Upper leaves linear to oblanceolate; upper internodes generally sticky; calyx not constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. antirrhina

6' Upper leaves oblanceolate to ovate; upper internodes not sticky; calyx constricted to a narrow tube ..... S. armeria

5' Pedicel, calyx hairy

7. Pedicels 0–5 mm; flowers generally 1 per node; inflorescence ± 1-sided

8. Calyx densely short-hairy, not glandular; petal limb 5–12 mm, lobed >= 1/2 length; styles exserted; inflorescence bracts thin, ± translucent ..... S. dichotoma subsp. dichotoma

8' Calyx glandular-hairy especially on veins; petal limb 2–5 mm, entire to notched; styles included; inflorescence bracts thick, opaque ..... S. gallica

7' Some pedicels > 5 mm; some nodes with 2–3 flowers; inflorescence not 1-sided

9. Petals bright pink; calyx lobes 2–3 mm

10. Petals 2-lobed ..... [S. pendula]

10' Petals entire ..... [S. pseudatocion]

9' Petals white, yellow-white, or ± pink; calyx lobes 3–13 mm

11. Calyx tube veins not clearly net-like, lobes generally 3–6 mm, acute to acuminate; flowers staminate ..... S. latifolia (3)

11' Calyx tube veins net-like above middle, lobes 6–13 mm, generally long-tapered; flowers bisexual ..... S. noctiflora

1' Perennial herb, from rhizome or simple to branched, woody caudex

12. Corolla bright red

13. Petal lobes 2–4; plants 4–10(15) cm ..... S. serpentinicola

13' Petal lobes 4–6; plants 20–70 cm ..... S. laciniata

14. Cauline leaves widely lanceolate to ovate; fruit ovoid ..... subsp. californica

14' Cauline leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; fruit ± oblong to ovoid ..... subsp. laciniata

12' Corolla white, ± red, purple, or yellow-white or -green to green

15. Calyx clearly ± inflated (papery in Silene vulgaris)

16. Calyx 12–20 mm, short-hairy, 10- or ± 20-veined, lobes 3–6 mm; fruit ovoid ..... S. latifolia (3)

16' Calyx 7–10 mm, generally glabrous, faintly 10–15-veined, lobes 1–3 mm; fruit ± spheric ..... S. vulgaris

15' Calyx not clearly inflated or papery in fruit

17. Petal claw tapered to limb; appendages 0

18. Calyx lobes 4–5 mm, slightly < tube; petal 4-lobed, claw ± fusiform, short-woolly below middle; s High Sierra Nevada ..... S. aperta

18' Calyx lobes 1–2 mm, << tube; petals entire to slightly notched, claw gradually tapered to limb, glabrous to sparsely short-hairy below middle; Klamath Ranges, s High Cascade Range, c&n High Sierra Nevada ..... S. invisa

17' Petal claw and limb junction generally abrupt, often narrowed; appendages 2–6, 0.5–4 mm

19. Petal limb 2-lobed, sometimes short-toothed near base

20. Basal, lower cauline leaves densely tufted, fleshy, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, generally < 40 mm, < 5 mm wide; flowering stems generally < 30 cm

21. Seeds 2–3 mm; calyx 8–10 mm; petal limb 3–5 mm; basal leaves 1–5 mm wide ..... S. grayi (2)

21' Seeds 1–2 mm; calyx 9–15 mm; petal limb 2.5–3.5 mm; basal leaves 1.5–3.5 mm wide

22. Walls between calyx hair cells clear; plant 10–15(20) cm; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. sargentii

22' Walls between calyx hair cells purple; plant 3–10 cm; calyx lobes 1–2 mm; High Cascade Range ..... S. suksdorfii

20' Basal leaves not densely tufted, not fleshy, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, some > 30 mm, > 5 mm wide; some flowering stems > 30 cm

23. Petals < 10 mm, calyx 5–7 mm; petal appendages < 0.5 mm ..... S. menziesii (2)

23' Petals > 10 mm, calyx 7–20 mm; petal appendages > 1 mm

24. Flowers nodding; stamens, styles much exserted ..... S. bridgesii

24' Flowers spreading to generally erect; stamens, styles ± not exserted

25. Pedicel, calyx puberulent, not glandular, rarely glabrous

26. Calyx base truncate to rounded in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes glabrous to sparsely puberulent ..... S. douglasii var. douglasii

26' Calyx base narrowed in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes moderately to densely puberulent, ± finely scabrous or not ..... S. verecunda (2)

25' Pedicel, calyx glandular-puberulent to -hairy

27. Basal leaves mostly > 10 mm wide, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or elliptic

28. Cauline leaves << basal leaves; cauline leaf pairs < 3; fruit stalk 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; calyx lobe veins wider than tube veins; > 1200 m ..... S. nuda

28' Cauline leaves gradually reduced upward; cauline leaf pairs > 4; fruit stalk 3–6 mm, puberulent to woolly; calyx lobe veins ± as wide as tube veins; < 300 m ..... S. scouleri subsp. scouleri

27' Basal, lower cauline leaves 0 or withering (if present, most < 10 mm wide, linear to narrowly oblanceolate)

29. Middle cauline leaves (3)5–10 mm wide; calyx lobe margins membranous ..... S. marmorensis

29' Middle cauline leaves < 6 mm wide; calyx lobe margin generally translucent ..... S. verecunda (2)

19' Petal limb generally 4–8-lobed

30. Calyx 15–40 mm; corolla 20–30 mm

31. Petals pink to rose-red, limbs 14–20 mm; s High Cascade Range ..... S. occidentalis (2)

31' Petals yellow-white, limbs 7–10 mm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, e Peninsular Ranges ..... S. parishii

30' Calyx 5–20(25) mm; corolla generally < 20 mm (< 50 mm in Silene occidentalis)

32. Calyx tube generally <= 10 mm

33. Calyx tube cylindric, length > width; stamens, styles > petal claws; petal claw short-woolly ..... S. lemmonii

33' Calyx tube bell-shaped or elliptic, length ± = width; stamens, styles = to ± > petal claws; petal claw glabrous or ciliate at base

34. Petals 5–11 mm, limb 2–4-lobed; fruit stalk glabrous; flowers generally ascending to erect; calyx lobes generally < 2 mm

35. Leaves linear to oblanceolate; internodes 2–3 × > leaves; calyx clearly veined; petal lobes 4, outer generally > inner ..... S. grayi (2)

35' Leaves lanceolate to elliptic; internodes < leaves; calyx faintly veined; petal lobes generally 2 ..... S. menziesii (2)

34' Petals 12–20 mm, limb 4–6(8)-lobed; fruit stalk puberulent; flowers nodding to ± spreading; calyx lobes 2–5 mm ..... S. campanulata

36. Leaves 2–10 mm wide, linear to lanceolate ..... subsp. campanulata

36' Leaves 10–30 mm wide, lanceolate to ± round ..... subsp. glandulosa

32' Calyx tube generally > 10 mm

37. Upper cauline leaves generally overlapping or exceeding pedicels; calyx canescent to soft-white-hairy; petal limb ± = claw, lobes > 10 mm

38. Stems glandular-puberulent above; petal lobes equal or outer < inner, ± linear or lanceolate to broadly oblong, 5–10 mm, appendages 2, linear; stamens included ..... S. hookeri

38' Stems soft-shaggy-hairy or canescent above; petal lobes equal, linear, 15–25 mm, stamens long-exserted.

39. Petal limb white with ± green center or ± pink, appendages 0 ..... S. bolanderi

39' Petal limb salmon-orange, appendages present ..... S. salmonacea

37' Flowers located well above cauline leaves; calyx short-glandular-hairy; petal limb 1/3–1/2 × claw, lobes < 8 mm

40. Fruit stalk 4–7 mm; petal limb 7–17 mm; calyx > 15 mm ..... S. occidentalis (2)

40' Fruit stalk 2–5 mm; petal limb 3–7 mm; calyx generally < 15(18) mm

41. Petal appendages 2, deeply cut or fringed; petal claw, stamen base ciliate ..... S. bernardina

41' Petal appendages 4–6, entire; petal claw, stamen base glabrous ..... S. oregana

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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