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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, perennial herb, erect or ± prostrate, taprooted. Leaf: stipules 1–6 mm, lanceolate to ovate, scarious, ± entire, white; blade elliptic to oblanceolate; vein ± 1. Inflorescence: axillary, dense; flowers 1–12; pedicels 0–2 mm. Flower: hypanthium cup-shaped; calyx abruptly expanded above or not; sepals 5, free, 0.7–4.4 mm (except awn), lanceolate to ovate, ± hairy, margin narrow, white, scarious, erect or recurved adaxially at tip (awn then appearing at tip); awn abaxial, subterminal, 0.5–1.5 mm, thread-like to ± stout, straight to wavy; petals 0; fertile stamens 5, staminodes 0 or 5, 0.5–1 mm, thread-like, on hypanthium rim; styles 2 or 2-branched in upper 1/2, 0.2–0.5 mm. Fruit: utricle, ovoid to spheric. Seed: 1, brown.
110 species: North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa. (Greek: inflammation of finger, especially under nail [whitlow], ailment plant was believed to cure) [Hartman et al. 2005 FNANM 5:30–43]

Key to Paronychia

1. Perennial herb; stem prostrate, mat-forming; taproot > 3 mm diam; flower hairs sparse, near tip, ± straight ..... P. franciscana

1' Annual; stem ± erect; taproot < 1 mm diam; flower hairs ± dense, on lower 1/2, hooked or tightly coiled at tip

2. Stem 0.5–1.2 cm, ± hidden by leaves; flower 1, 4.2–5 mm; sepal awn 1.5–2 mm; scarious sepal margin 0.5–2 mm wide, tip erect ..... P. ahartii

2' Stem 2–20 cm, not hidden by leaves; flowers 3–12, 2–2.5 mm; sepal awn 0.6–0.9 mm; scarious sepal margin 0.1–0.2 mm wide, tip recurved adaxially ..... P. echinulata var. echinulata


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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