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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Rhizome generally suberect to erect, often stout. Leaf: stipe stout, firm, generally densely scaly, ×-section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade 1–3-[> 3–]pinnate, proximal pinnae reduced or not, thin to leathery, scaly, veins generally free, rarely ± jointed; pinna bases often wider acroscopically; teeth, generally including bristle-like tips, < 4 mm [or teeth 0]. Sporangia: sori round; indusium peltate [0 or reniform], sinus 0.
± 175+ species: ± worldwide. (Greek: many rows, from rows of sori on type sp.)

Key to Polystichum

1. Leaf generally 1-pinnate, rarely to partly 2-pinnate; pinnae generally simple, ± entire to serrate, in Polystichum kruckebergii sometimes 1-lobed

2. Leaf 10–15(25) cm; pinnae simple or generally lobed at bases of lowest ..... P. kruckebergii (2)

2' Leaf 10–120(200) cm; pinnae simple

3. Proximal pinnae ± deltate, ± 1/2 longest; stipe 1/10–1/6 blade ..... P. lonchitis

3' Proximal pinnae ovate to lanceolate, ± = to ± 2/3 longest; stipe generally 1/5–1/2 blade

4. Stipe base scales ovate, ± 3(6) mm wide, those above proximal pinnae generally > 1 mm wide, persistent; pinnae generally in 1 plane; indusium ciliate ..... P. munitum

4' Stipe base scales lanceolate, ± 2–3 mm wide, those above proximal pinnae generally < 1 mm wide, falling early; pinnae ± in 1 plane or not; indusium ± entire to toothed ..... P. imbricans

5. Leaf 15–80 cm; pinnae ± in 1 plane, longest 3–6(10) cm; sori submarginal ..... subsp. curtum

5' Leaf 15–50 cm; pinnae often not ± in 1 plane, longest 2–5 cm; sori ± near midvein ..... subsp. imbricans

1' Leaf 1–2-pinnate, rarely to partly 3-pinnate;; pinnae deeply pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, at least at bases of lowest

6. Segment teeth without bristle-like tips; serpentine ..... P. lemmonii

6' Segment teeth with bristle-like tips; serpentine or not

7. Leaf generally 2- to rarely partly 3-pinnate; pinnules abruptly narrowed to attachment < 0.5 mm wide, often with a lobe on distal side of base; rachis with persistent scales ..... P. dudleyi

7' Leaf generally 1- to partly 2-pinnate; pinnules gradually tapered to attachment < 3 mm wide, lobes 0; rachis with deciduous scales

8. Smallest scales on abaxial blade surface hair-like; blade generally > 5 cm wide ..... P. californicum

8' Smallest scales on abaxial blade surface linear, few hair-like; blade generally < 5 cm wide

9. Proximal pinnae ± deltate, longest < 1(1.5) cm ..... P. kruckebergii (2)

9' Proximal pinnae ± lanceolate, longest 1.5–3 cm ..... P. scopulinum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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