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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Stem: erect, simple, cylindric, firm, air cavities 0. Leaf: ascending; blade C-shaped or planoconvex in ×-section proximally, flat distally, internal air cavities large; sheath-tip lobes present or not. Inflorescence: terminal; flowers 1000+; staminate flowers distal, mixed with many papery scales; pistillate flowers proximal, clustered on peg-like compound pedicels; bractlets many, thread-like with enlarged tips generally visible at spike surface, or 0. Staminate flower: stamens 2–7 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit. Pistillate flower: stalk long-hairy, persistent; ovary chambers 1, style 1, persistent, stigma 1; many modified pistils with enlarged sterile ovary, style deciduous. Fruit: fusiform, thin-walled, yellow-brown, wind-dispersed.
± 15 species: boreal to tropics worldwide. (Greek: to smoke or emit smoke) [Smith 2000 FNANM 22:278–285] Dissecting microscope ideal for Typha identification (flower structures small), which is complicated by hybridization.
Unabridged note: Typha angustifolia × Typha latifolia (Typha × glauca Godr., pro sp.) and Typha domingensis × Typha latifolia (Typha × provincialis A. Camus) are generally highly sterile and intermediate between parents in most characters. Typha angustifolia × Typha domingensis are generally highly fertile, thus species boundaries are locally obscure. Hybrids involving 3 species are locally common. Although putative hybrids may produce no or few seeds they generally form long-persistent clones.

Key to Typha

1. Pistillate bractlets 0; stigma ovate to lance-ovate; naked stem between staminate, pistillate flowers generally 0(8) cm; widest leaf blades 10–29 mm wide (fresh), 5–20 mm (dry) ..... T. latifolia

1' Pistillate bractlets present, tip width >= stigma width; stigma linear; naked stem between staminate, pistillate flowers (0)1–12 cm; widest leaf blades 4–18 mm wide (fresh), 3–15 mm (dry)

2. Leaf blade glands 0; pistillate spike dark brown; pistillate bractlet tip dark brown, generally darker than stigma, blunt ..... T. angustifolia

2' Leaf blade gland-dotted adaxially near base; pistillate spike cinnamon to medium brown; pistillate bractlet tip straw-colored (to light brown), generally paler than stigma, acute to acuminate ..... T. domingensis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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