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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, glabrous or glandular-hairy; roots fleshy- fibrous.
Inflorescence: umbel subtended by involucre.
Flower: nodding; sepals reflexed, later erect, persistent; corolla tube short, generally not covering anther bases, lobes reflexed, often with white and/or yellow and/or dark purple base; filaments very short, wide, often fused, anthers ± lanceolate, exserted, erect, ± adherent into a cone around style; ovary superior, style slender, ± exserted from anthers.
Fruit: ± 5-valved or circumscissile, oblong-ovate to cylindric.
± 15 species: generally North America. (Greek: 12 gods, presumably the Olympians) [Mast & Reveal 2007 Brittonia 59:79–82] Monophyletic genus closest to Primula subg. Auriculastrum and recently treated in Primula (Mast & Reveal 2007); polyploid group; species often intergrade; "anther connective" refers to tissue between pollen sacs, especially near base; dehiscence must be determined on fruit that has aged and dried naturally, because e.g., green fruit of circumscissile taxa (e.g., Dodecatheon clevelandii) sometimes split longitudinally as a result of pressing and thereby may appear valved. For another, in some cases different, treatment of genus, see Reveal 2009 FNANM 8:268–271.
Unabridged references: [Thompson 1953 Contr Dudley Herb 4:73–154; Mast et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91: 926–942]
1. Stigma enlarged (>> style in width); anther connective wrinkled, dark maroon to black; filaments < 1.5 mm, free or joined by thin membrane but not fused into tube
2. Corolla tube generally covering anther bases; flower parts in 5s; anther tips acute; plant densely glandular-hairy ..... D. redolens
2' Corolla tube not covering anther bases; flower parts in 4s or 5s; anthers tips truncate to obtuse; plant glabrous to glandular-hairy
3. Lf 2–20 cm, linear to linear-oblanceolate; stem glabrous; inflorescence glabrous to ± glandular-hairy; flower parts in 4s; fruit with valves ..... D. alpinum
3' Lf 9–50 cm, linear-oblanceolate to oblanceolate; stem glandular-hairy; inflorescence glandular-hairy; flower parts in 4s or 5s; fruit circumscissile or with valves, sometimes both on 1 plant ..... D. jeffreyi
1' Stigma ± not enlarged (± = style in width); anther connectives smooth or wrinkled, yellow or dark; filaments 1–4 mm, fused into tube, or < 1.5 mm, free
4. Anther connectives smooth (to longitudinally wrinkled when dry); fruit circumscissile or with valves
5. Corolla lobe generally 9–14 mm, magenta to lavender; roots white, without bulblets; fruit with valves ..... D. pulchellum
5' Corolla lobe generally 5–9 mm, magenta to white; roots ± red, with many bulblets; fruit circumscissile ..... D. subalpinum (2)
4' Anther connectives transversely wrinkled; fruit circumscissile
6. Lf blade generally tapered to petiole, length generally > 2.5 × width; filament tube > 2 mm; connective dark, smooth or obscurely wrinkled (if leaf narrowed abruptly to petiole, then filament tube < 1.5 mm, connective dark, generally smooth)
7. Anther 5–9 mm, filament 0.5–1.5 mm, free or fused into tube; corolla lobe generally 7–20 mm ..... D. conjugens
7' Anther 3–4 mm, filament 2–3.5 mm, fused into tube; corolla lobe generally 5–9 mm ..... D. subalpinum (2)
6' Lf blade generally narrowed abruptly to petiole, length generally < 2.5 × width; filament tube 1–4 mm; connective dark, generally wrinkled
8. Lf blade length generally < 2 × width; filament tube generally < 3 mm wide; root bulblets present at flower ..... D. hendersonii
8' Lf blade length generally > 2 × width; filament tube generally 3–4 mm wide; root bulblets 0 ..... D. clevelandii
9. Anther connectives yellow; filament tube without yellow or white spot below each anther, sometimes all yellow ..... subsp. clevelandii
9' Anther connectives maroon to black; filament tube with or without yellow or white spot below each anther
10. Filament tube without yellow or white spot below each anther ..... subsp. insulare
10' Filament tube with yellow or white spot below each anther
11. Anther generally dark purple, tip obtuse to notched ..... subsp. patulum
11' Anther dark red, black, or generally yellow, tip acute to obtuse ..... subsp. sanctarum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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