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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to perennial herb, generally ± glaucous; hairs simple or 0.
Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire or dentate to pinnately lobed or divided; cauline sessile, occasionally petioled, base generally lobed or clasping.
Flower: radial or bilateral; calyx urn- or occasionally bell-shaped, sepals erect, base ± sac-like, keeled or not; petal blade narrower to wider than proximal 1/2, generally channeled, margins ± crinkled or not; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length, or 4 long and 2 short, longest filaments fused or free.
Fruit: silique, dehiscent, linear, flat parallel to septum, unsegmented; stigma entire or 2-lobed.
Seed: 10–120, in 1 row, generally winged.
35 species: sw US, n Mex. (Greek: twisted flower, from wavy-margined petals)
1. All cauline leaves petioled or sessile, base not lobed, sagittate, or clasping
2. Annual; mid-cauline leaves ± linear; filaments of long stamen pairs fused; fruit 1.2–2 mm wide ..... S. barbiger
2' Perennial; mid-cauline leaves round to broadly obovate; all filaments free; fruit 2.5–3.2(3.5) mm wide ..... S. howellii
1' Middle or distal cauline leaves sessile, base lobed, sagittate, or clasping
3. Raceme bracted at least below most proximal flowers
4. Basal, proximal cauline leaves 1–2-pinnately lobed or divided; fruit not constricted between seeds (± constricted)
5. Mid-cauline leaf base not lobed, pinnately divided into thread-like segments; fruit abruptly reflexed at stalk above receptacle ..... S. diversifolius
5' Mid-cauline leaf base lobed to dentate or entire (pinnately lobed, not thread-like-segmented); fruit ascending to spreading (reflexed).
6. Fr 6–12 cm, 1.7–2.5 mm wide, valve midvein distinct; seeds 60–100, 2–2.5 mm; petals white, veins violet ..... S. farnsworthianus
6' Fr 2–5 cm, 1.2–1.7 mm wide, valve midvein obscure; seeds 22–38, 1–1.5 mm; petals rose-purple ..... S. fenestratus
4' Basal, proximal cauline leaves entire, wavy, dentate, or ± lobed; fruit generally constricted between seeds
7. Annual; sepals 4–5 mm; pedicel not expanded at receptacle ..... S. gracilis
7' Biennial or short-lived perennial herb; sepals 6–10(13) mm; pedicel expanded at receptacle
8. Mid-cauline leaves lance-linear; longest filament pair fused, 13–16 mm; short filaments 7–9 mm ..... S. oblanceolatus
8' Mid-cauline leaves oblong to obovate or ± round; longest filament pair free, (5)7–11 mm; short filaments (1.5)3–5 mm ..... S. tortuosus
3' Raceme not bracted
9. Raceme with terminal, sterile flower cluster; fruit sparsely to densely stiff-hairy
10. Fr 1.3–2.5 cm, 2.5–3.5 mm wide; seeds wingless; petals purple, veins darker, proximal 1/2 narrower than blade; Mount Hamilton Range, Santa Clara Co. ..... S. callistus
10' Fr 3.5–11.4 cm, 1.5–2.5 mm wide; seeds winged; petals purple with white margins, ± purple-white, lemon-yellow, or ± yellow-white, proximal 1/2 at least as wide as blade; not Mount Hamilton Range
11. Mid-cauline leaf base not lobed; long filament pairs fused; Mount Diablo, Contra Costa Co. ..... S. hispidus
11' Mid-cauline leaf base lobed; only longest filament pair fused; Fresno, Merced, Monterey, San Benito cos. ..... S. insignis
12. Sepals of fertile flowers ± purple; terminal sterile flower cluster dark purple; petals ± purple-white; fruit sparsely (densely) stiff hairy ..... subsp. insignis
12' Sepals of fertile flowers ± green-yellow or ± purple; terminal sterile flower cluster pale yellow, ± green-yellow, or ± purple; petals lemon yellow or ± yellow-white; fruit moderately to densely stiff hairy ..... subsp. lyonii
9' Raceme terminal sterile flower cluster 0; fruit generally glabrous
13. Perennial, caudex generally woody; all stamens fertile, free; calyx ± bell-shaped; anthers 2.5–5 mm
14. Distal leaves ± same size as mid-cauline; petals darker-veined, ± crinkled ..... S. barbatus
14' Distal leaves smaller than mid-cauline; petals not darker-veined, not crinkled
15. Fr descending, recurved; petal proximal 1/2 yellow-green, blades purple or ± brown ..... S. longisiliquus
15' Fr spreading to ascending, straight or ± curved; petals generally all white, yellow, purple, or ± brown
16. Stamens 4 long, 2 short; fruit valve midveins obscure at least near tip; petal proximal halves white or pale yellow
17. Sepals pale yellow to white; stigma ± unlobed; racemes open in bud; stem 2.5–8.6 dm; woody caudex elevated ..... S. bernardinus
17' Sepals purple; stigma 2-lobed; racemes dense in bud; stem (2.5)6–15(18) dm; woody caudex 0 ..... S. campestris
16' Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; fruit valve midveins distinct; petal proximal halves ± purple
18. Basal leaves entire, petiole wingless (narrowly winged); fruit 2–2.7(3) mm wide; stigma unlobed; seeds (42)48–60, 2–2.5(2.7) mm, 1.5–2 mm wide ..... S. oliganthus
18' Basal leaves dentate, petiole broadly winged; fruit (2.5)3–6(7) mm wide; stigma ± unlobed to 2-lobed; seeds 20–38(46), 2.5–5 mm, 2.2–5 mm wide ..... S. cordatus
19. Mid-cauline leaves broadly oblong to ovate or ± round, tips ± rounded to obtuse; basal leaves obovate to spoon-shaped, tips obtuse or round ..... var. cordatus
19' Mid-cauline leaves lanceolate, tips acuminate to acute; basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, tips acuminate ..... var. piutensis
13' Annual or biennial, woody caudex 0; longest stamens sterile, occasionally fertile, filaments fused, occasionally free; calyx urn- or occasionally bell-shaped; fertile anthers 1–2.5(3) mm
20. Fr placenta constricted between seeds; generally biennial
21. Annual; basal leaves not rosetted, not mottled; sepals green; petal blade not darker-veined ..... S. vernalis
21' Biennial; basal leaves rosetted, generally mottled; sepals rose-purple, yellow, or violet; petal blade darker-veined
22. St 1.4–5(6) dm, generally branched at base; fruit valve midveins obscure; petals ± white, adaxial pair ± purple-veined, abaxial pair with purple spot ..... S. brachiatus
22' St (2.5)6.5–12(15) dm, generally branched distally; fruit valve midveins distinct; petals creamy white, veins brown-purple ..... S. morrisonii
20' Fr placenta straight; annual
23. Upper sepal ± round to broadly ovate-cordate, forming banner-like hood, distinctly larger than other sepals; fruit pendent ..... S. polygaloides
23' Sepals lanceolate to broadly ovate, not banner-like, ± equal; fruit erect to ascending or spreading (reflexed).
24. Mid-cauline leaves round to broadly ovate; fruit strongly curved ..... S. drepanoides
24' Mid-cauline leaves ovate to oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear; fruit straight to curved
25. Calyx urn-shaped, radial; plant glabrous near base; fruit valves glabrous, midvein obscure; petals not crinkled
26. Mid-cauline leaves linear to narrowly lance-linear; basal leaves entire; petal blade 2–3 mm wide ..... S. vimineus
26' Mid-cauline leaves ovate to lanceolate; basal leaves dentate or entire; petal blade 1–2 mm wide
27. Lower petals ± purple; longest filaments 5–6 mm; fruit 1.3–3 cm; seeds 12–22 ..... S. batrachopus
27' Lower petals white, purple-veined; longest filaments 6–10 mm; fruit 3–9 cm; seeds 24–54
28. Raceme axis straight; leaves glaucous-green; petals 8–12 mm; fruit generally strongly arched or recurved ..... S. breweri
28' Raceme axis wavy; leaves ± yellow; petals 6–8 mm; fruit generally straight (recurved) ..... S. hesperidis
25' Calyx bilateral; plant basally stiff-hairy (glabrous); fruit valves sparsely to moderately hairy or glabrous, midvein distinct; petals crinkled ..... S. glandulosus
29. Pedicel 1–3.2 cm; sepals dark purple-black; raceme axis wavy; proximal cauline leaves glabrous ..... subsp. niger
29' Pedicel 0.2–1.5 cm; sepals not dark purple-black; raceme axis straight; proximal cauline leaves generally sparsely to densely stiff-hairy (glabrous)
30. Raceme not 1-sided
31. Sepals white to ± green-white or pale yellow; Santa Clara Co. ..... subsp. albidus
31' Sepals ± red-purple to dark maroon or lilac-lavender; San Luis Obispo Co. n to Santa Clara, Lake, Mendocino cos. ..... subsp. glandulosus
30' Raceme 1-sided
32. Sepals lavender to rose or purple
33. Pedicel 5–15 mm; fruit curved downward, spreading to reflexed; longest filaments 7–10 mm; Sonoma Co. ..... subsp. hoffmanii
33' Pedicel 2–5 mm; fruit curved upward, spreading to ascending; longest filaments 6–8 mm; Marin Co. ..... subsp. pulchellus
32' Sepals ± green-white to cream or pale yellow
34. Sepals ± green-white, base lavender to ± purple; petals purple-veined; Marin, Napa cos. ..... subsp. secundus
34' Sepals cream or pale yellow, base not ± purple to lavender; petals not purple-veined; Sonoma Co. ..... subsp. sonomensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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