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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

STREPTANTHUS JEWELFLOWER
Annual to perennial herb, generally ± glaucous; hairs simple or 0. Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire or dentate to pinnately lobed or divided; cauline sessile, occasionally petioled, base generally lobed or clasping. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: radial or bilateral; calyx urn- or occasionally bell-shaped, sepals erect, base ± sac-like, keeled or not; petal blade narrower to wider than proximal 1/2, generally channeled, margins ± crinkled or not; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length, or 4 long and 2 short, longest filaments fused or free. Fruit: silique, dehiscent, linear, flat parallel to septum, unsegmented; stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 10–120, in 1 row, generally winged.
35 species: southwestern United States, northern Mexico. (Greek: twisted flower, from wavy-margined petals)

Key to Streptanthus

1. All cauline leaves petioled or sessile, base not lobed, sagittate, or clasping

2. Annual; mid-cauline leaves ± linear; filaments of long stamen pairs fused; fruit 1.2–2 mm wide ..... S. barbiger

2' Perennial herb; mid-cauline leaves round to broadly obovate; all filaments free; fruit 2.5–3.2(3.5) mm wide ..... S. howellii

1' Middle or distal cauline leaves sessile, base lobed, sagittate, or clasping

3. Raceme bracted at least below most proximal flowers

4. Basal, proximal cauline leaves 1–2-pinnately lobed or divided; fruit not constricted between seeds (± constricted)

5. Mid-cauline leaf base not lobed, pinnately divided into thread-like segments; fruit abruptly reflexed at stalk above receptacle ..... S. diversifolius

5' Mid-cauline leaf base lobed to dentate or entire (pinnately lobed, not thread-like-segmented); fruit ascending to spreading (reflexed).

6. Fruit 6–12 cm, 1.7–2.5 mm wide, valve midvein distinct; seeds 60–100, 2–2.5 mm; petals white, veins violet ..... S. farnsworthianus

6' Fruit 2–5 cm, 1.2–1.7 mm wide, valve midvein obscure; seeds 22–38, 1–1.5 mm; petals rose-purple ..... S. fenestratus

4' Basal, proximal cauline leaves entire, wavy, dentate, or ± lobed; fruit generally constricted between seeds

7. Annual; sepals 4–5 mm; pedicel not expanded at receptacle ..... S. gracilis

7' Biennial or short-lived perennial herb; sepals 6–10(13) mm; pedicel expanded at receptacle

8. Mid-cauline leaves lance-linear; longest filament pair fused, 13–16 mm; short filaments 7–9 mm ..... S. oblanceolatus

8' Mid-cauline leaves oblong to obovate or ± round; longest filament pair free, (5)7–11 mm; short filaments (1.5)3–5 mm ..... S. tortuosus

3' Raceme not bracted

9. Raceme with terminal, sterile flower cluster; fruit sparsely to densely stiff-hairy

10. Fruit 1.3–2.5 cm, 2.5–3.5 mm wide; seeds wingless; petals purple, veins darker, proximal 1/2 narrower than blade; Mount Hamilton Range, Santa Clara Co. ..... S. callistus

10' Fruit 3.5–11.4 cm, 1.5–2.5 mm wide; seeds winged; petals purple with white margins, ± purple-white, lemon-yellow, or ± yellow-white, proximal 1/2 at least as wide as blade; not Mount Hamilton Range

11. Mid-cauline leaf base not lobed; long filament pairs fused; Mount Diablo, Contra Costa Co. ..... S. hispidus

11' Mid-cauline leaf base lobed; only longest filament pair fused; Fresno, Merced, Monterey, San Benito cos. ..... S. insignis

12. Sepals of fertile flowers ± purple; terminal sterile flower cluster dark purple; petals ± purple-white; fruit sparsely (densely) stiff hairy ..... subsp. insignis

12' Sepals of fertile flowers ± green-yellow or ± purple; terminal sterile flower cluster pale yellow, ± green-yellow, or ± purple; petals lemon yellow or ± yellow-white; fruit moderately to densely stiff hairy ..... subsp. lyonii

9' Raceme terminal sterile flower cluster 0; fruit generally glabrous

13. Perennial herb, caudex generally woody; all stamens fertile, free; calyx ± bell-shaped; anthers 2.5–5 mm

14. Distal leaves ± same size as mid-cauline; petals darker-veined, ± crinkled ..... S. barbatus

14' Distal leaves smaller than mid-cauline; petals not darker-veined, not crinkled

15. Fruit descending, recurved; petal proximal 1/2 yellow-green, blades purple or ± brown ..... S. longisiliquus

15' Fruit spreading to ascending, straight or ± curved; petals generally all white, yellow, purple, or ± brown

16. Stamens 4 long, 2 short; fruit valve midveins obscure at least near tip; petal proximal halves white or pale yellow

17. Sepals pale yellow to white; stigma ± unlobed; racemes open in bud; stem 2.5–8.6 dm; woody caudex elevated ..... S. bernardinus

17' Sepals purple; stigma 2-lobed; racemes dense in bud; stem (2.5)6–15(18) dm; woody caudex 0 ..... S. campestris

16' Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; fruit valve midveins distinct; petal proximal halves ± purple

18. Basal leaves entire, petiole wingless (narrowly winged); fruit 2–2.7(3) mm wide; stigma unlobed; seeds (42)48–60, 2–2.5(2.7) mm, 1.5–2 mm wide ..... S. oliganthus

18' Basal leaves dentate, petiole broadly winged; fruit (2.5)3–6(7) mm wide; stigma ± unlobed to 2-lobed; seeds 20–38(46), 2.5–5 mm, 2.2–5 mm wide ..... S. cordatus

19. Mid-cauline leaves broadly oblong to ovate or ± round, tips ± rounded to obtuse; basal leaves obovate to spoon-shaped, tips obtuse or round ..... var. cordatus

19' Mid-cauline leaves lanceolate, tips acuminate to acute; basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, tips acuminate ..... var. piutensis

13' Annual or biennial, woody caudex 0; longest stamens sterile, occasionally fertile, filaments fused, occasionally free; calyx urn- or occasionally bell-shaped; fertile anthers 1–2.5(3) mm

20. Fruit placenta constricted between seeds; generally biennial

21. Annual; basal leaves not rosetted, not mottled; sepals green; petal blade not darker-veined ..... S. vernalis

21' Biennial; basal leaves rosetted, generally mottled; sepals rose-purple, yellow, or violet; petal blade darker-veined

22. Stem 1.4–5(6) dm, generally branched at base; fruit valve midveins obscure; petals ± white, adaxial pair ± purple-veined, abaxial pair with purple spot ..... S. brachiatus

22' Stem (2.5)6.5–12(15) dm, generally branched distally; fruit valve midveins distinct; petals creamy white, veins brown-purple ..... S. morrisonii

20' Fruit placenta straight; annual

23. Upper sepal ± round to broadly ovate-cordate, forming banner-like hood, distinctly larger than other sepals; fruit pendent ..... S. polygaloides

23' Sepals lanceolate to broadly ovate, not banner-like, ± equal; fruit erect to ascending or spreading (reflexed).

24. Mid-cauline leaves round to broadly ovate; fruit strongly curved ..... S. drepanoides

24' Mid-cauline leaves ovate to oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear; fruit straight to curved

25. Calyx urn-shaped, radial; plant glabrous near base; fruit valves glabrous, midvein obscure; petals not crinkled

26. Mid-cauline leaves linear to narrowly lance-linear; basal leaves entire; petal blade 2–3 mm wide ..... S. vimineus

26' Mid-cauline leaves ovate to lanceolate; basal leaves dentate or entire; petal blade 1–2 mm wide

27. Lower petals ± purple; longest filaments 5–6 mm; fruit 1.3–3 cm; seeds 12–22 ..... S. batrachopus

27' Lower petals white, purple-veined; longest filaments 6–10 mm; fruit 3–9 cm; seeds 24–54

28. Raceme axis straight; leaves glaucous-green; petals 8–12 mm; fruit generally strongly arched or recurved ..... S. breweri

28' Raceme axis wavy; leaves ± yellow; petals 6–8 mm; fruit generally straight (recurved) ..... S. hesperidis

25' Calyx bilateral; plant basally stiff-hairy (glabrous); fruit valves sparsely to moderately hairy or glabrous, midvein distinct; petals crinkled ..... S. glandulosus

29. Pedicel 1–3.2 cm; sepals dark purple-black; raceme axis wavy; proximal cauline leaves glabrous ..... subsp. niger

29' Pedicel 0.2–1.5 cm; sepals not dark purple-black; raceme axis straight; proximal cauline leaves generally sparsely to densely stiff-hairy (glabrous)

30. Raceme not 1-sided

31. Sepals white to ± green-white or pale yellow; Santa Clara Co. ..... subsp. albidus

31' Sepals ± red-purple to dark maroon or lilac-lavender; San Luis Obispo Co. n to Santa Clara, Lake, Mendocino cos. ..... subsp. glandulosus

30' Raceme 1-sided

32. Sepals lavender to rose or purple

33. Pedicel 5–15 mm; fruit curved downward, spreading to reflexed; longest filaments 7–10 mm; Sonoma Co. ..... subsp. hoffmanii

33' Pedicel 2–5 mm; fruit curved upward, spreading to ascending; longest filaments 6–8 mm; Marin Co. ..... subsp. pulchellus

32' Sepals ± green-white to cream or pale yellow

34. Sepals ± green-white, base lavender to ± purple; petals purple-veined; Marin, Napa cos. ..... subsp. secundus

34' Sepals cream or pale yellow, base not ± purple to lavender; petals not purple-veined; Sonoma Co. ..... subsp. sonomensis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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