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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

LEPIDIUM PEPPERGRASS, PEPPERCRESS
Annual to perennial herb (shrub); hairs 0 or simple. Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate, to 1–3-pinnately lobed; cauline short-petioled to sessile, base occasionally lobed to clasping. Inflorescence: elongated or congested. Flower: sepals erect or spreading, oblong to ovate, base not sac-like; petals linear to obovate, white or yellow (pink or purple), occasionally reduced or 0; stamens 2, 4, or 6. Fruit: silicle, generally dehiscent, oblong to ovate, obcordate, or round (spectacle-shaped), flat perpendicular to septum (inflated), unsegmented. Seed: 2(4), gelatinous when wet; wing narrow or 0.
220 species: all continents except Antarctica. (Greek: little scale, from fruit) [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2002 Novon 12:5–11]
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1936 Madroño 3:265–300]

Key to Lepidium

1. Middle or distal cauline leaf bases lobed to sagittate or clasping

2. Most distal cauline leaves deeply cordate-clasping; basal leaves 2–3-pinnately lobed or divided; flowers pale yellow; seeds narrowly winged ..... L. perfoliatum

2' Most distal cauline leaf bases lobed or sagittate; basal leaves entire (divided or 1–2-pinnately lobed); petals white; seeds wingless

3. Stamens 2; petals 0 or to 0.7 mm; basal leaves 1–2-pinnately lobed; style to 0.1 mm ..... L. oblongum (2)

3' Stamens 6; petals 1.5–5 mm; basal leaves dentate or entire (divided); style >= 0.2 mm

4. Plants not rhizomatous; fruit dehiscent, tip wide-winged, notched; inflorescence elongated

5. Annual; fruit valves papillate; style 0.2–0.5(0.7) mm, included or ± exserted beyond notch ..... L. campestre

5' Perennial herb; fruit valves generally not papillate; style (0.6)1–1.5 mm, well-exserted beyond notch ..... L. heterophyllum

4' Plants rhizomatous; fruit indehiscent, tip wingless, not notched; inflorescence generally panicles

6. Fruit flat, cordate to ± reniform; valves net-veined ..... L. draba

6' Fruit inflated, spheric to obovoid, generally not net-veined

7. Fruit hairy, spheric, (2)3–4.4(5) mm wide; style 0.5–1.5 mm ..... L. appelianum

7' Fruit glabrous, obovoid, (3.5)4–6.2(7) mm wide; style (0.8)1.2–2(2.3) mm ..... L. chalepense

1' All cauline leaf bases not lobed, sagittate, or clasping

8. Fruit indehiscent, valve walls thick, ridged or tubercled

9. Fruit reniform to ovate-cordate, 2.3–3.4 mm, ridged, tip not notched; stamens 6 ..... L. coronopus

9' Fruit spectacle-shaped, 1.3–1.7 mm, not ridged, tip notched; stamens 2 ..... L. didymum

8' Fruit dehiscent, valve walls thin or thick, not ridged or tubercled

10. Biennial to subshrub, with woody caudex or base

11. Basal leaves entire or serrate ..... L. latifolium

11' Basal leaves pinnately lobed or 0

12. Plant glabrous; basal leaves 0; fruit 4.2–7(8) mm wide ..... L. fremontii

12' Plant puberulent at least on pedicels or rachis; basal leaves generally present; fruit (1.5)1.8–3.6(4) mm wide ..... L. montanum (2)

10' Annual or biennial, not woody

13. Stamens 2

14. Fruit prominently net-veined; sepals persistent ..... L. strictum

14' Fruit not veined (weakly veined); sepals deciduous

15. Pedicel strongly flattened; fruit valves stiff hairy or bristly at least on margin ..... L. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum

15' Pedicel cylindric or ± flattened; fruit valves glabrous or puberulent

16. Fruit elliptic ..... L. ramosissimum

16' Fruit round to obovate

17. Plant stiff hairy; mid-cauline leaves pinnately lobed ..... L. oblongum (2)

17' Plant puberulent or glabrous; mid-cauline leaves entire to serrate, dentate, lobed, or divided

18. Fruit obovate; rachis hairs 0 or straight, generally club-shaped; petals 0 or 0.3–0.9 mm ..... L. densiflorum

18' Fruit ± round; rachis hairs curved; petals 1–2.5 mm ..... L. virginicum

19. Fruit glabrous or puberulent; pedicel flattened at least below tip, (0.2)0.3–0.4 mm wide ..... subsp. menziesii

19' Fruit glabrous; pedicel cylindric, 0.15–0.2 mm wide ..... subsp. virginicum

13' Stamens 4 or 6

20. Stamens 6; style (0.1)0.2–1.6 mm, generally exserted from fruit notch

21. Flowers yellow

22. Pedicel glabrous, (2.7)3–4.4(5) mm; inflorescence rachis glabrous; fruit tip winged; notch 0.2–0.6 mm ..... L. flavum

22' Pedicel hairy adaxially, 5–15 mm; inflorescence rachis hairy or glabrous; fruit tip wingless, notch 0 (0.1 mm) ..... L. jaredii

21' Flowers white

23. Biennial or perennial herb; rachis puberulent, hairs straight or curved ..... L. montanum (2)

23' Annual; rachis hairs long, straight, mixed with shorter club-shaped ..... L. thurberi

20' Stamens 4; style 0 (0.1 mm), included in fruit notch

24. Pedicel cylindric or ± flattened

25. Fruit 2.4–3.6 mm, tip winged, notch 0.3–0.8 mm; petals 0 ..... L. oxycarpum

25' Fruit 1.8–2 mm, tip wingless, notch to 0.1 mm; petals 0.4–0.6 mm ..... L. pinnatifidum

24' Pedicel strongly flattened

26. Sepals persistent; fruit valve hairs stiff, spreading, mixed with much smaller hairs; petals hairy abaxially ..... L. latipes

26' Sepals not persistent; fruit valves glabrous or sparsely uniformly puberulent; petals 0 or glabrous abaxially

27. Fruit valves not or obscurely veined; pedicel not appressed ..... L. nitidum

27' Fruit valves strongly net-veined; pedicel appressed

28. Fruit (3)4–6 mm, 2.5–3.5 mm wide, notch (0.8)1–2 mm, V-shaped; pedicel (2)3–4.2 mm ..... L. acutidens

28' Fruit 2.5–3.5 mm, 2–2.8 mm wide, notch 0.5–0.7(0.8) mm, U-shaped; pedicel (1.6)1.9–2.5(3) mm ..... L. dictyotum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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