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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to perennial herb ( shrub); hairs 0 or simple.
Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate, to 1–3-pinnately lobed; cauline short-petioled to sessile, base occasionally lobed to clasping.
Inflorescence: elongated or congested.
Flower: sepals erect or spreading, oblong to ovate, base not sac-like; petals linear to obovate, white or yellow (pink or purple), occasionally reduced or 0; stamens 2, 4, or 6.
Fruit: silicle, generally dehiscent, oblong to ovate, obcordate, or round (spectacle-shaped), flat perpendicular to septum (inflated), unsegmented.
Seed: 2(4), gelatinous when wet; wing narrow or 0.
220 species: all continents except Antarctica. (Greek: little scale, from fruit) [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2002 Novon 12:5–11]
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1936 Madroño 3:265–300]
1. Middle or distal cauline leaf bases lobed to sagittate or clasping
2. Most distal cauline leaves deeply cordate-clasping; basal leaves 2–3-pinnately lobed or divided; flowers pale yellow; seeds narrowly winged ..... L. perfoliatum
2' Most distal cauline leaf bases lobed or sagittate; basal leaves entire (divided or 1–2-pinnately lobed); petals white; seeds wingless
3. Stamens 2; petals 0 or to 0.7 mm; basal leaves 1–2-pinnately lobed; style to 0.1 mm ..... L. oblongum (2)
3' Stamens 6; petals 1.5–5 mm; basal leaves dentate or entire (divided); style >= 0.2 mm
4. Plants not rhizomatous; fruit dehiscent, tip wide-winged, notched; inflorescence elongated
5. Annual; fruit valves papillate; style 0.2–0.5(0.7) mm, included or ± exserted beyond notch ..... L. campestre
5' Perennial; fruit valves generally not papillate; style (0.6)1–1.5 mm, well-exserted beyond notch ..... L. heterophyllum
4' Plants rhizomatous; fruit indehiscent, tip wingless, not notched; inflorescence generally panicles
6. Fr flat, cordate to ± reniform; valves net-veined ..... L. draba
6' Fr inflated, spheric to obovoid, generally not net-veined
7. Fr hairy, spheric, (2)3–4.4(5) mm wide; style 0.5–1.5 mm ..... L. appelianum
7' Fr glabrous, obovoid, (3.5)4–6.2(7) mm wide; style (0.8)1.2–2(2.3) mm ..... L. chalepense
1' All cauline leaf bases not lobed, sagittate, or clasping
8. Fr indehiscent, valve walls thick, ridged or tubercled
9. Fr reniform to ovate-cordate, 2.3–3.4 mm, ridged, tip not notched; stamens 6 ..... L. coronopus
9' Fr spectacle-shaped, 1.3–1.7 mm, not ridged, tip notched; stamens 2 ..... L. didymum
8' Fr dehiscent, valve walls thin or thick, not ridged or tubercled
10. Biennial to subshrub, with woody caudex or base
11. Basal leaves entire or serrate ..... L. latifolium
11' Basal leaves pinnately lobed or 0
12. Plant glabrous; basal leaves 0; fruit 4.2–7(8) mm wide ..... L. fremontii
12' Plant puberulent at least on pedicels or rachis; basal leaves generally present; fruit (1.5)1.8–3.6(4) mm wide ..... L. montanum (2)
10' Annual or biennial, not woody
13. Stamens 2
14. Fr prominently net-veined; sepals persistent ..... L. strictum
14' Fr not veined (weakly veined); sepals deciduous
15. Pedicel strongly flattened; fruit valves stiff hairy or bristly at least on margin ..... L. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum
15' Pedicel cylindric or ± flattened; fruit valves glabrous or puberulent
16. Fr elliptic ..... L. ramosissimum
16' Fr round to obovate
17. Plant stiff hairy; mid-cauline leaves pinnately lobed ..... L. oblongum (2)
17' Plant puberulent or glabrous; mid-cauline leaves entire or dentate to serrate
18. Fr obovate; rachis hairs 0 or straight, generally club-shaped; petals 0 or 0.3–0.9 mm ..... L. densiflorum
18' Fr ± round; rachis hairs curved; petals 1–2.5 mm ..... L. virginicum
19. Fr glabrous or puberulent; pedicel flattened at least below tip, (0.2)0.3–0.4 mm wide ..... subsp. menziesii
19' Fr glabrous; pedicel cylindric, 0.15–0.2 mm wide ..... subsp. virginicum
13' Stamens 4 or 6
20. Stamens 6; style (0.1)0.2–1.6 mm, generally exserted from fruit notch
21. Fls yellow
22. Pedicel glabrous, (2.7)3–4.4(5) mm; inflorescence rachis glabrous; fruit tip winged; notch 0.2–0.6 mm ..... L. flavum
22' Pedicel hairy adaxially, 5–15 mm; inflorescence rachis hairy or glabrous; fruit tip wingless, notch 0 (0.1 mm) ..... L. jaredii
21' Fls white
23. Biennial or perennial herb; rachis puberulent, hairs straight or curved ..... L. montanum (2)
23' Annual; rachis hairs long, straight, mixed with shorter club-shaped ..... L. thurberi
20' Stamens 4; style 0 (0.1 mm), included in fruit notch
24. Pedicel cylindric or ± flattened
25. Fr 2.4–3.6 mm, tip winged, notch 0.3–0.8 mm; petals 0 ..... L. oxycarpum
25' Fr 1.8–2 mm, tip wingless, notch to 0.1 mm; petals 0.4–0.6 mm ..... L. pinnatifidum
24' Pedicel strongly flattened
26. Sepals persistent; fruit valve hairs stiff, spreading, mixed with much smaller hairs; petals hairy abaxially ..... L. latipes
26' Sepals not persistent; fruit valves glabrous or sparsely uniformly puberulent; petals 0 or glabrous abaxially
27. Fr valves not or obscurely veined; pedicel not appressed ..... L. nitidum
27' Fr valves strongly net-veined; pedicel appressed
28. Fr (3)4–6 mm, 2.5–3.5 mm wide, notch (0.8)1–2 mm, V-shaped; pedicel (2)3–4.2 mm ..... L. acutidens
28' Fr 2.5–3.5 mm, 2–2.8 mm wide, notch 0.5–0.7(0.8) mm, U-shaped; pedicel (1.6)1.9–2.5(3) mm ..... L. dictyotum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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