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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
[Annual] perennial herb from rhizome or short underground caudex, glabrous to soft-hairy. Stem: generally erect, 1–several. Leaf: basal simple to pinnately lobed or compound, tapered to petiole; cauline ± sessile to ± clasping, pinnately lobed to compound, distal lobe generally > others. Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, ± dense to open, terminal or axillary. Flower: calyx lobes 5–15, rolled inward, plumose in age, spreading, persistent in fruit; corolla ± funnel-shaped, white to pink, lobes ± equal, throat >> tube, occasionally swollen near base, tube slender, occasionally obscured by swollen throat; stamens 3; ovary ± 1-chambered. Fruit: generally compressed, generally 6-veined vertically.
± 200 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. (Latin: strength, from use in folk medicine, or after Valerian, a Roman emperor) [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159]
1. Corolla 3–4.5 mm, throat ± > lobes
2. Corolla throat asymmetric, with small swelling on 1 side just distal to tube; leaves generally short-hairy ..... V. californica
2' Corolla throat symmetric, evenly tapered to tube on all sides; leaves glabrous to sparsely hairy — Warner Mountains ..... V. occidentalis
1' Corolla 4.5–8 mm, throat ± 2 × lobes
3. All basal leaves generally simple; White and Inyo Mountains ..... V. pubicarpa
3' At least some basal leaves lobed to compound; Northwestern California ..... V. sitchensis
4. Leaflets not lobed, fine-crenate to -dentate; < 1200 m ..... subsp. scouleri
4' Leaflets irregularly lobed to sparsely toothed; 1500–2200 m ..... subsp. sitchensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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