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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



John B. Nelson

Perennial herb [annual], hairy, generally glandular; rhizome slender or 0. Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.1–2.5 m. Leaf: 1.5–18 cm, proximal generally petioled, distal ± sessile; blade oblong to ovate, serrate to crenate. Inflorescence: spike-like, generally terminal, interrupted or continuous, bracted. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, ± radial, veins 5–10, lobes 5, erect or spreading, triangular, tips sharp; corolla white, yellow, pink, red, magenta, or purple, tube narrow, with internal ring of hairs generally above base, perpendicular to oblique to tube axis, generally with short, pouched spur on the lower side of the tube, upper lip erect or generally parallel to tube axis, concave, entire (notched), generally hairy, lower lip perpendicular to tube axis or reflexed, 3(2)-lobed, glabrous to hairy. Fruit: oblong to ovoid, brown to black, smooth or irregularly, minutely roughened.
± 300 species: generally temperate; some cultivated for ornamental or edible rhizomatous tubers. (Greek: ear of corn, from inflorescence) [Mulligan & Munro 1989 Naturaliste Canad 116:35–51] Stachys arvensis L., Stachys floridana Shuttlew. historical waifs.
Unabridged references: [Epling 1934 Fedde Rep Sp Nov Regni Veg 80:1–75]

Key to Stachys

1. Corolla tube > 15 mm ..... S. chamissonis

1' Corolla tube < 15 mm

2. Internal ring of hairs perpendicular to corolla tube; corolla not pouched toward base on lower side ..... S. bullata

2' Internal ring of hairs oblique to corolla tube; corolla pouched toward base on lower side

3. Hairs densely silky-silvery, woolly; Del Norte Co. ..... S. bergii

3' Hairs soft, stiff, or glandular, never silky-silvery; widespread

4. Upper corolla lip < 2 mm; stamens ± exserted from corolla tube ..... S. stricta

4' Upper corolla lip > 2 mm; stamens clearly exserted from corolla tube

5. Calyx lobes lanceolate, ± = tube; proximal leaves short-petioled to sessile; Modoc Plateau ..... S. pilosa

5' Calyx lobes generally deltoid or triangular, shorter than tube; proximal leaves generally long-petioled; widespread

6. Plant with abundant cobwebby, tangled hairs, herbage generally felty ..... S. albens

6' Plant lacking cobwebby, tangled hairs, herbage not felty

7. Mature inflorescence compact, generally only 2 lowest bracts visible ..... S. pycnantha

7' Mature inflorescence elongated, many bracts visible

8. Leaf blade narrowed, silky hairy, base wedge-shaped; corolla white (± pink) ..... S. ajugoides

8' Leaf blade broader, never silky, base rounded, truncate, or cordate; corolla pink or darker (white)

9. Stem, herbage densely glandular, resinous; lower corolla lip 6–10 mm wide ..... S. stebbinsii

9' Stem, herbage ± glandular, not resinous; lower corolla lip 4–6 mm wide

10. Corolla magenta to purple; bracts gradually reduced distally on stem; Northwestern California, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area ..... S. mexicana

10' Corolla pink, bracts rapidly reduced distally on stem; widespread ..... S. rigida

11. Plant generally < 1 m; leaf base cordate, blade ovate ..... var. quercetorum

11' Plant generally 1 m; leaf base rounded (cordate), blade lanceolate to oblong ..... var. rigida


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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