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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Richard G. Olmstead

Perennial herb or shrub, generally hairy, occasionally glandular, from rhizomes or tubers. Stem: erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal and cauline; proximal generally petioled; distal cauline ± sessile. Inflorescence: flower 1–2 per leaf axil, or appearing as a bracted raceme. Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lips ± equal, enclosing nutlets, back of upper lip dome-like or transversely ridged, generally concave-depressed behind ridge; corolla 2-lipped, white to violet-blue, upper lip < lower, ± entire, hood-like, lower lip 3-lobed; stamens 4, pairs ± equal, enclosed by upper corolla lip, anthers ciliate, lower 2 1-chambered; disk below ovary generally green-yellow. Fruit: generally ovoid, generally minutely papillate, brown or black.
± 300 species: generally temperate worldwide. (Latin: tray, from calyx dome or ridge) [Olmstead 1990 Contr Univ Michigan Herb 17:223–265] Salazaria occasionally treated as separate genus.
Unabridged references: [Paton 1990 Kew Bull 45:399–450; Wagstaff et al. 1998 Plant Syst Evol 209:265–274]

Key to Scutellaria

1. Shrub; calyx lobes bladder-like in fruit; s East of Sierra Nevada, Desert — lateral branches rigid, tips spine-like in age ..... S. mexicana

1' Perennial herb; calyx lobes not bladder-like in fruit; widespread

2. Corolla white to pale yellow, lower lip occasionally blue- to violet-spotted

3. Distal cauline leaf blade crenate (entire), base truncate to ± lobed; stem hairs long, spreading; lower corolla lip blue-spotted ..... S. bolanderi

4. Corolla 12–14 mm; leaf length > 2 × width; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, s Mojave Desert ..... subsp. austromontana

4' Corolla 15–19 mm; leaf length 1–2 × width; Sierra Nevada, Inner South Coast Ranges ..... subsp. bolanderi

3' Distal cauline leaf blade entire, base obtuse to wedge-shaped; stem hairs short, ascending or pointed down; lower corolla lip violet-spotted or not

5. Stem 1.5–4 dm, hairs appressed-ascending; ovary disk green-yellow; leaf blade ovate to oblong ..... S. californica

5' Stem < 2 dm, hairs pointed or curled down; ovary disk orange-red; leaf blade obovate to ± diamond-shaped ..... S. nana

2' Corolla blue to violet-blue, lower lip generally white-patched

6. Flowers generally > 4 in axillary or terminal racemes, bracted ..... S. lateriflora

6' Flowers 1, axillary, subtended by leaves

7. Upper calyx lip abaxially dome-like; fruit brown; generally wet habitats ..... S. galericulata

7' Upper calyx lip abaxially transversely ridged, ± concave behind ridge; fruit black; generally dry habitats

8. Stem, leaf hairs 1–3 mm, spreading; plants with tubers ..... S. tuberosa

8' Stem, leaf hairs << 0.5 mm, curled or appressed; rhizomes slender, tubers ± 0

9. Corolla 13–21 mm, hairs not gland-tipped; leaf length 2–3 × width ..... S. antirrhinoides

9' Corolla 25–35 mm, hairs gland-tipped; leaf length 3–7 × width ..... S. siphocampyloides


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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