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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to perennial herb, glabrous or hairs simple (forked). Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate or pinnately lobed, generally deciduous; cauline petioled, or sessile with bases lobed or sagittate. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: calyx urn-shaped or cylindric, sepals erect (spreading), base sac-like or not; petals yellow, purple, brown, or white, generally channeled, margin wavy or not; stamens in 3 pairs of equal length, or 4 long and 2 short, (all equal), free or filaments of longer pair(s) fused. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, ± sessile, cylindric (flat perpendicular or parallel to septum); stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 24–210, 1 row per chamber, oblong to ovate (± spheric), plump, wing 0.
17 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: stem flower, in reference to insertion of flowers along stem)
1. Cauline leaves petioled or occasionally ± sessile, bases not lobed or sagittate
2. Perennial herb with woody caudex, glabrous or sparsely hairy
3. Stem strongly inflated ..... C. crassicaulis
3' Stem not inflated (± inflated)
4. Basal leaves not rosetted; pedicel 5–35 mm; stigma lobes opposite septum margins ..... C. glaucus
4' Basal leaves rosetted; pedicel 1–6 mm; stigma lobes opposite valves ..... C. major
2' Annual or biennial (short-lived perennial herb), woody caudex 0; glabrous or moderately to densely stiff-hairy proximally.
5. Sepals, petals, stamens widely spreading; filaments ± equal in length ..... C. anceps
5' Sepals, petals, stamens erect (sepals ascending to spreading); filaments in 2 or 3 pairs of unequal length
6. Petals 2.5–5(6.5) mm, neither channeled nor wavy-margined, undifferentiated into blade and claw; calyx not urn-shaped ..... C. lasiophyllus
6' Petals (6)8–17.5 mm, channeled, generally wavy-margined, well differentiated into blade and claw; calyx generally urn-shaped
7. Petals ± white or ± purple; seeds 152–198 ..... C. pilosus
7' Petals creamy white (pink); seeds 44–96
8. Stamens 4 long, 2 short; fruit 3.8–7.7 cm; seeds 44–58 ..... C. flavescens
8' Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; fruit 6.5–12.5 cm; seeds 78–96 ..... C. hallii
1' Cauline leaves sessile, bases lobed, sagittate, or clasping
9. Stem much inflated, to 4 cm wide ..... C. inflatus
9' Stem not inflated
10. Fruit flat perpendicular to septum; seeds ± spheric ..... C. californicus
10' Fruit cylindric, flat parallel to septum, or 4-sided; seeds ovoid to oblong
11. Inflorescence with a terminal cluster of sterile flowers; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length, filaments of upper or lower pairs fused
12. Fruit reflexed (spreading); leaf hairs 2-rayed forked and simple; cotyledons deeply 3-lobed; stigma lobes 0.5–1.5 mm ..... C. coulteri
12' Fruit erect to ascending; leaf hairs simple; cotyledons entire; stigma lobes 1–4 mm ..... C. lemmonii
11' Inflorescence without a terminal cluster of sterile flowers; stamens generally 4 long, 2 short, filaments free
13. Plant glabrous throughout; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; fruit spreading to ascending ..... C. amplexicaulis
13' Plant hairy at least basally; stamens 4 long, 2 short; fruit reflexed (spreading)
14. Hairs 0 or appressed, 2-rayed; distal stem generally wavy, generally weak ..... C. cooperi
14' Hairs spreading, simple; stem straight, rigid
15. Fruit flat parallel to septum or 4-sided; cauline leaves lance-linear ..... C. heterophyllus
15' Fruit cylindric; cauline leaves ovate to oblong ..... C. simulans
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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