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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted, red root dye present or not. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally cauline, ± sessile, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cyme or flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; bracts throughout. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit, lobes equal; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally ± yellow (± white), tube > lobes, appendages present or 0; style entire. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, 2.5–6+ mm, ovoid, plump, smooth to pitted or wrinkled, attachment scar basal.
75 species: worldwide, generally temperate, mountains. (Greek: stone seed) Heterostylous or not; cleistogamous flowers present or 0.
Unabridged references: [Baker 1961 Rhodora 63:229–235, Ralston 1993 Ph.D. Dissertation Northern Arizona Univ]

Key to Lithospermum

1. Annual; caudex 0; corolla ± white (blue-white), tube with 5 vertical bands of hairs; fruit ± brown, wrinkled, ± tubercled, ± dull ..... L. arvense

1' Perennial herb; caudex ± woody; corolla ± yellow, tube without longitudinal bands of hairs; fruit white to gray, smooth to pitted, shiny

2. Corolla 15–35 mm, 10–20 mm diam, appendaged, lobe margin jagged; cleistogamous flowers present; se Desert Mountains ..... L. incisum

2' Corolla 9–18 mm, 7–13 mm diam, appendages 0, lobes entire; cleistogamous flowers 0; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau

3. Flowers in open panicles or 1 in upper leaf axils; pedicels 4–7 mm, recurved in fruit; corolla 12–18 mm, 1.5–2 × calyx, golden yellow; heterostylous; leaf blades oblong to lance-ovate, few, scattered ..... L. californicum

3' Flowers in dense cymes; pedicels 1–3 mm, ± erect in fruit; corolla 9–12 mm, 1–1.5 × calyx, pale- to green-yellow; homostylous; leaf blades lanceolate to linear, many, crowded ..... L. ruderale


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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