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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often ± woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally ± = blades, ± winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, ± bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.
40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783–1869) Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged references: [Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121–227]
Unabridged note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.
1. Corolla pink or white
2. Corolla pink, when dry ± blue, appendages pink ..... H. mundula
2' Corolla white, when dry ± brown, appendages white
3. Nutlet 5–6 mm, abaxial prickles ± 10, << marginal prickles; calyx 3.5–5.5 mm; corolla limb 12–19 mm diam, appendages longer than wide; anthers at base of tube ..... H. bella
3' Nutlet 4–4.5 mm, abaxial prickles 10–25, ± = marginal prickles; calyx 1.5–3 mm; corolla limb (5)7–14 mm diam, appendages ± as long as wide; anthers ± at top of tube ..... H. californica
1' Corolla generally ± blue, occasionally ± purple (pink), occasionally white with blue margins
4. Nutlet abaxial prickles many, ± as numerous as marginal; corolla tube > to >> calyx
5. Corolla appendages generally as long as wide, included, indented at tip, not closing throat, not hiding anthers; leaves sparse-rough-hairy ..... H. nervosa
5' Corolla appendages much longer than wide, exserted, 2-pronged at tip, ± closing throat, ± hiding anthers; leaves velvety-hairy ..... H. velutina
4' Nutlet abaxial prickles 0 or fewer than marginal; corolla tube <= calyx
6. Cymes (1)2–3 per inflorescence, ± terminal — s High Sierra Nevada ..... H. sharsmithii
6' Cymes generally > 3 per inflorescence, terminal and axillary
7. Hairs at mid-stem generally ± appressed
8. Nutlets 2–3 mm, abaxial prickles 0–7; calyx 1–2 mm; leaves ± soft velvety-hairy; White and Inyo Mountains ..... H. brevicula
8' Nutlets 3–4.5 mm, abaxial prickles 8–15; calyx 4–5 mm; leaves appressed-stiff-hairy; Modoc Plateau ..... H. cusickii
7' Hairs at mid-stem generally ± spreading
9. Stem 1(few) from non-woody caudex; nutlet abaxial prickles 0(3); inflorescence narrow ..... H. floribunda
9' Stem generally many from ± woody caudex; nutlet abaxial prickles generally > 3; inflorescence ± wide
10. Hairs of lower leaves spreading, bristly, generally >> 1 mm, especially on margins; basal leaves generally < 22 cm, generally < 2.5 cm wide ..... H. setosa
10' Hairs of lower leaves ± appressed, soft or strigose to rough, generally < 1 mm, occasionally > 1 mm on margins; basal leaves often > 22 cm, often > 2.5 cm wide
11. Mid cauline leaf base truncate to cordate, ± clasping; stem hairs ± dense, generally < 1 mm; nutlet abaxial prickles generally 10–17; corolla limb 7–12+ mm diam ..... H. amethystina
11' Mid cauline leaf base tapered to obtuse, not ± clasping; stem hairs generally 0 to ± sparse, often > 1 mm; nutlet abaxial prickles generally 4–10; corolla limb (4)5–8(11) mm diam ..... H. micrantha
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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