Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster

Shrub, twining to erect. Leaf: simple, entire, generally short-petioled; 1–2 pairs beneath inflorescence often fused around stem. Inflorescence: spikes, ± interrupted, on axillary peduncles or at ends of branches, or flowers paired on axillary peduncles and subtended by 0–3 pairs of bracts. Flower: calyx limb 0 or generally 5-toothed, generally persistent; corolla 5-lobed, ± bilateral, 2-lipped (upper 4-lobed), swollen at base on 1 side; ovary chambers 2–3. Fruit: berry, generally round; seeds generally > 2.
± 200 species: temperate, subtropical North America, Europe, Asia, northern Africa. (Johann Lonitzer, German herbalist, physician, 1499–1569, and/or his son, Adam Lonitzer, German botanist, 1528–1586) [Howarth & Donoghue 2006 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(24):9101–9106]
Unabridged note: According to Ferguson (1966 J Arnold Arbor 47:33–59), genus named "in honor of Johann Lonitzer, latinized Lonicerus, 1499–1569, a German herbalist and physician, not Adam Lonitzer, 1528–1586; see Linnaeus, Crit. Bot. 93 1737." In fact, although Linnaeus indicated in Critica Botanica (Hort translation, Ray Society, 1938, p. 76) that the genus Lonicera was named in honor of Johann Lonitzer, in Hortus Cliffortianus (1737; p. 58) he states "...Loniceram ab Adamo Lonicero, antiquo Botanico...".

Key to Lonicera

1. Flowers paired on axillary peduncles; plants twining or erect

2. Corolla > 25 mm; plant twining ..... L. japonica

2' Corolla < 20 mm; plant erect

3. Ovaries of flower pair fused or appearing so

4. Corolla ± yellow, weakly 2-lipped; bracts 1–3 pairs, narrowly lanceolate; ovaries, fruit tightly enclosed by inner, fused bracts, thereby appearing fully fused ..... L. cauriana

4' Corolla dark red, strongly 2-lipped; bracts 0 or minute; ovaries, fruits not enclosed by bracts, fused generally > 1/2 ..... L. conjugialis

3' Ovaries of flower pair free

5. Bracts not leaf-like, not forming involucre, not enveloping ovaries ..... L. tatarica

5' Bracts leaf-like, forming a conspicuous involucre, ± enveloping ovaries ..... L. involucrata

6. Plant 6–9 dm; corolla yellow, tube ± wider upward; stigma exserted; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. involucrata

6' Plant 15–36 dm; corolla yellow, strongly tinged orange or red, tube cylindric; stigma included or ± exserted; North Coast, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Coast ..... var. ledebourii

1' Flowers in ± interrupted spikes on axillary peduncles or at ends of branches; plants twining or trailing (except Lonicera interrupta)

7. Leaf 5–10 cm; corolla 15–50 mm; inflorescence a dense, short spike; upper leaf pair fused around stem; Northwestern California, Cascade Range

8. Corolla orange, weakly 2-lipped; stamens, style ± exserted ..... L. ciliosa

8' Corolla yellow-white tinged ± purple, strongly 2-lipped; stamens, style well exserted ..... [L. etrusca]

7' Leaf 1–8 cm; corolla generally < 15 mm; inflorescence a ± long, interrupted spike; upper leaf pair fused around stem or not; widespread

9. Upper leaf pairs fused around stem; corolla glabrous or not

10. Stipules ± conspicuous, at least near inflorescence; corolla glandular-hairy or hairy ..... L. hispidula

10' Stipules 0; corolla glabrous ..... L. interrupta

9' Upper leaf pairs not fused around stem; corolla often hairy ..... L. subspicata

11. Leaf < 2 × longer than wide; n High Sierra Nevada (Butte Co.), Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... var. denudata

11' Leaf 3–4 × longer than wide; s Channel Islands (Santa Catalina Island), Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. subspicata


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.