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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally ± brown or ± purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: ± raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla ± radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2–12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: thread-like branch) [Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397–400] In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1–134]
Unabridged note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
1. Fruit circumscissile; plants prostrate ..... N. californicus
1' Fruit valvate; plants erect or ascending
2. Ovary superior in fruit; fruit 2–3 × > sepals ..... N. longiflorus
3. Corolla 3–3.5 mm, tube 1.5–2.5 mm; filaments ± 2–3 mm ..... var. breviflorus
3' Corolla 5–10 mm, tube 2.5–5.5 mm; filaments 3.5–7.5 mm ..... var. longiflorus
2' Ovary partly to completely inferior in fruit; fruit < or ± > sepals
4. Stem < 1 cm; inflorescence generally head-like ..... N. twisselmannii
4' Stem generally > 1 cm, spreading, decumbent, or erect; inflorescence an open raceme
5. Stem below branches silver-gray, rarely dark; corolla white or cream with yellow and maroon marks or yellow, pink, or ± brown tips
6. Flower not inverted, adaxial corolla lobes 3, abaxial 2; filaments declined, straight or tips ± curved; leaves entire ..... N. rubescens
6' Flower inverted, adaxial corolla lobes 2, abaxial 3; filaments arched over, strongly curved; leaves toothed or pinnately lobed ..... N. tenuis
7. Corolla lobes dissimilar, adaxial 2 linear, arched, maroon, abaxial lobes yellow, central oblong-elliptic, flanking abaxial ones ± reniform ..... var. aliformis
7' Corolla lobes similar, oblong-elliptic, white, tips pink or ± yellow ..... var. tenuis
5' Stem below branches ± red, brown, or dark purple, not silver-gray; corolla white, cream, pink, lavender, or ± purple, with dark maroon marks or not
8. Corolla white or cream with dark maroon or ± brown marks, divided ± to base, tube 0
9. Fruit base rounded, top acute; sepals spreading or reflexed
10. Corolla lobes 1.3–2.5 mm ..... N. orientalis
10' Corolla lobes 0.2–0.5 mm ..... N. rigidus
9' Fruit base acute, top acute, ± pointed, or rounded; sepals erect
11. Pedicel straight, base to tip; sepals ± 0.5 mm; corolla lobes 0.7 mm ..... N. capillaris
11' Pedicel straight near base, curved at tip; sepals ± 2 mm; corolla lobes 2–4 mm
12. Filaments 2 mm; fruit 2–2.5 mm; seed 0.5 mm, with clearly pitted rows; leaf blades irregularly serrate ..... N. interior
12' Filaments 3 mm; fruit 2.5–3 mm; seed 1 mm, with deeply impressed, vertical lines; leaf blades entire or obscure-toothed ..... N. montanus
8' Corolla white or pale lavender, midvein on lobes sometimes pink, lavender, or maroon, otherwise without darker marks, divided 1/3–1/2 to base, tube bell-shaped or cylindric
13. Corolla tube narrow- or wide-cylindric ..... N. secundiflorus
14. Corolla tube 0.5–0.8 mm; leaf 2–3 mm, elliptic ..... var. robbinsii
14' Corolla tube 2.5–3.5 mm; leaf 3–6 mm, oblanceolate ..... var. secundiflorus
13' Corolla tube bell-shaped
15. Corolla lobes all held on adaxial side of flower, bases of 2 lowest fused into spur ..... N. calcaratus
15' Corolla lobes radiating or ± held on abaxial side of flower, bases of 2 lowest ± fused, not forming spur
16. Inflorescence axis strongly zigzag
17. Pedicel straight except curved up below tip; leaves toothed or pinnately lobed; bracts linear to lanceolate ..... N. glanduliferus
17' Pedicel S-curved; leaves entire or irregularly dentate; bracts ovate ..... N. sigmoideus
16' Inflorescence axis straight or weakly zigzag
18. Anthers 0.5 mm, filaments ± 2 mm; bracts 2–4 mm, recurved; corolla white to lavender, midvein on lobes lavender; fruit base acute, tip rounded ..... N. gracilis
18' Anthers 0.1–0.3 mm, filaments 0.7–2 mm; bracts 2–9 mm, erect or appressed; corolla white or ± pink; fruit bulging near base or not, tip acute
19. Bracts ascending, appressed to pedicel base; pedicel straight, tip hooked upward abruptly; fruit base, tip acute ..... N. pinnatifidus
19' Bracts erect, not appressed to pedicel base; pedicel ± S-curved or straight, tip erect; fruit bulging near base ..... N. ramosissimus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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