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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous.
Stem: generally spreading to erect.
Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound.
Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate ( staminate only) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally long-pedicelled.
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, occasionally fused; petals wide, yellow, purple, or ± white (pale red-orange), tips narrowed, generally lobed; styles long or short; ovary tip projection 0.
Fruit: oblong-ovate to round, ± compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves ± cylindric, prickly to scaly or tubercled; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not obvious.
Seed: face flat or grooved.
± 40 species: temperate, ± worldwide. (Latin: to heal) [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133–230]
1. Lvs compound, base of main division petiole-like and unwinged
2. Lvs palmate, occasionally palmate-ternate, distal segment of main axis 4–30 mm wide
3. Main leaf divisions generally ± 5, central division generally 2–4 cm; styles 2 × calyx lobes; bracts 1–2 mm; fruit occasionally stalked distal to receptacle; common, widespread ..... S. crassicaulis (2)
3' Main leaf divisions ± 3, central division generally 4–7 cm; styles ± = calyx lobes; bracts 3–5 mm; fruit ± sessile distal to receptacle; uncommon, coastal ..... S. hoffmannii (2)
2' Lvs ± pinnate, first division generally ternate, others pinnate, distal segment of main axis 1–5 mm wide
4. Fr with many hooked prickles
5. Staminate flowers 4–6 per umbel, inconspicuous; stem leafy, ± erect ..... S. bipinnata
5' Staminate flowers 7–12 per umbel, conspicuous; stem ± leafless, branches generally spreading widely from near base ..... S. graveolens
4' Fr with ± rounded tubercles, hooked prickles 0 or few
6. Plant from taproot (tuber-like); staminate flowers ± > fruit, inconspicuous — NCo, NCoR, CaRF ..... S. tracyi
6' Plant from a distinct, spheric or irregular tuber; staminate flowers generally >> fruit, conspicuous
7. Corolla ± yellow or pale red-orange; fruit 2.5–3 mm, most tubercles nipple-like or with bristle; SnFrB ..... S. saxatilis
7' Corolla yellow; fruit 1.5–2 mm, tubercles unarmed; widespread ..... S. tuberosa
1' Lvs simple, entire to deeply lobed or cut, axis of main division with at least a narrow, toothed wing throughout
8. Bracts yellow, conspicuous, >> heads; plant prostrate; leaves bright ± yellow-green at flower ..... S. arctopoides
8' Bracts ± green, inconspicuous, <= heads; plant spreading to erect; leaves green at flower
9. Lf margins not or ± toothed, some basal leaves entire ..... S. maritima
9' Lf margins sharply toothed, all leaves ± lobed
10. Lvs palmately or ± ternately lobed or dissected; main divisions 3–5, generally not deeply cut
11. Main leaf division narrowed to ± petiole-like base ..... S. hoffmannii (2)
11' Main leaf division generally >= 10 mm wide at base
12. Outline of leaf margin ± rounded, teeth generally ± 1 mm; plant stout, 24–120 cm, generally branched well distal to base; widespread ..... S. crassicaulis (2)
12' Outline of leaf margin sharply angled, teeth generally ± 2 mm; plant slender, 5–30 cm, generally branched near base; generally coastal ..... S. laciniata
10' Lvs ± pinnately lobed or dissected; main divisions generally >= 7, generally deeply cut
13. Lvs appearing ± palmate, with some pinnate divisions — corolla yellow; CCo, SCoRO, SW ..... S. arguta
13' Lvs clearly pinnate, with some ternate divisions
14. Corolla purple or yellow; fruits 3–8 per head; staminate flowers inconspicuous, < fruit; widespread ..... S. bipinnatifida
14' Corolla yellow; fruits 1–5 per head; staminate flowers conspicuous, > fruit; KR (Del Norte Co.) ..... S. peckiana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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