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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb, glabrous, generally glaucous; roots tuberous, single or clustered, or clustered-fibrous. Stem: erect, branched. Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, generally 1–2-ternate-pinnate or 1–2-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected, leaflets or segments generally linear to lance-linear. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0–many, conspicuous and reflexed or not; bractlets several to many, narrow, ± scarious; rays, pedicels few to many, generally spreading-ascending; 2° umbels generally convex distally. Flower: calyx lobes evident; petals generally obovate, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: linear-oblong, ± compressed side-to-side or not at all, glabrous; ribs ± equal, thread-like to prominent, not winged; oil tubes 1–several per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat to grooved.
± 12 species: generally western America. (Greek: around the neck, from involucre) [Chuang & Constance 1969 Univ Calif Publ Bot 55:1–74] Roots, basal leaves needed for identification.
1. Roots fibrous or ± thickened, generally 5–20-clustered; styles 0.8–1 mm
2. Basal blade leaflets widely lanceolate to ovate, 10–40 mm wide; petals 5–7-veined; fruit ribs prominent ..... P. howellii
2' Basal blade leaflets linear to lanceolate, 2–8 mm wide; petals 1-veined; fruit ribs thread-like ..... P. kelloggii
1' Roots tuberous, 2–6-clustered or 1; styles generally 1–2.5 mm
3. Basal leaves 1–2-ternate or 1–2-pinnate, with 1–3 pairs of 1° leaflets
4. Rays in fruit unequal, spreading-ascending; oil tubes per rib-interval 1 ..... P. lemmonii
4' Rays in fruit ± equal and ascending, or unequal and spreading-ascending; oil tubes per rib-interval 3–4 ..... P. parishii
5. Rays generally 12–14, ± equal in fruit; bractlets ± = pedicels; fruit ovate to ± round, 2.5–3.5 mm ..... subsp. latifolia
5' Rays generally 6–11, unequal in fruit; bractlets generally < pedicels; fruit oblong to ± ovate, 3–5 mm ..... subsp. parishii
3' Basal leaves generally 1-pinnate with 3–5 pairs of 1° leaflets, or 2–3-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected or compound
6. Basal leaves generally 1-pinnate with 3–5 pairs of 1° leaflets — proximal 1° leaflets occasionally lobed or ternately dissected ..... P. gairdneri
7. Tuberous roots 2–3-clustered; petals 5- or 7-veined ..... subsp. borealis
7' Tuberous roots 1; petals 1-veined ..... subsp. gairdneri
6' Basal leaves 2–3-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected or compound
8. Terminal leaf segments unlike lateral in size, form
9. Fruit 4–6 mm; bractlets scarious throughout, 3–9 mm, acuminate ..... P. bolanderi subsp. bolanderi
9' Fruit 5–8 mm; bractlets scarious-margined, 1–4 mm, acute
10. Plant 5–15 dm; tuberous roots cylindric, 5–12 cm; leaf segments flattened, 5–10 mm wide; oil tubes per rib-interval 1 ..... P. californica
10' Plant 3.5–7.5 dm; tuberous roots oblong to ovoid, 1–6 cm; leaflets cylindric, < 1 mm wide; oil tubes per rib-interval 3–4 ..... P. pringlei (2)
8' All leaf segments or leaflets similar in size, form
11. Longest rays in fruit 5–9 cm
12. 2° umbels generally spheric, generally 40–50(60)-flowered; 1° umbels ± concave distally, rays unequal; oil tube 1 per rib-interval ..... P. bacigalupii
12' 2° umbels convex distally, generally 20–25-flowered; 1° umbels convex distally, rays ± equal to unequal; oil tubes 3–4 per rib-interval ..... P. pringlei (2)
11' Longest rays in fruit 1–4.5 cm
13. Bracts 0–2, inconspicuous
14. Umbels strongly concave distally; rays in fruit unequal; fruit linear-club-shaped, 5–7 mm ..... P. leptocarpa
14' Umbels convex or flat distally; rays in fruit ± equal; fruit oblong, 3–6 mm ..... P. oregana (2)
13' Bracts 6–12, conspicuous
15. Bractlets widely scarious-margined, generally acuminate; oil tubes 2–3 per rib-interval ..... P. bolanderi subsp. involucrata
15' Bractlets narrowly scarious-margined, acute; oil tube 1 per rib-interval ..... P. oregana (2)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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