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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb, taprooted. Stem: generally 0 or short. Leaf: generally basal, membranous to ± leathery or fleshy; blade oblong to widely ovate or round, palmately or pinnately lobed to 1–2-pinnately or -ternate-pinnately dissected or compound, segments or leaflets linear to obovate, entire to variously lobed, generally spine-tipped. Inflorescence: umbels compound, generally terminal, scapose, open to spheric, dense, peduncled; bracts, bractlets conspicuous, scarious (or 0); rays few to many, occasionally 0, pedicels occasionally 0. Flower: calyx lobes prominent to 0; petals oblong to obovate, white, yellow, or purple, tips narrowed; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: oblong to ovate, ± cylindric to compressed front-to-back; ribs unequal[equal], marginal, some or all thin- or corky-winged (some or all wingless); oil tubes 1–several per rib-interval; fruit axis 0 or divided to base. Seed: face flat to longitudinally concave or grooved.
± 50 species: western North America. (Greek: wave wing) Some species outside California are TOXIC to livestock. [Mathias 1930 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 17:213–476] Generic boundaries fluctuating.
1. Rays ± 0, umbels dense, spheric; bractlets 0 or poorly developed
2. Leaf minutely hairy or roughened; bracts conspicuous, fused proximally; fruit glabrous ..... C. cinerarius
2' Leaf glabrous; bracts 0; fruit hairy
3. Leaf round, ternate ..... C. ripleyi
3' Leaf oblong-ovate, ternate to 2-pinnate or 2-pinnately dissected
4. Stem 0; fruit wings unequal ..... C. deserticola
4' Stem short, underground; fruit wings ± equal ..... C. globosus
1' Rays ± developed, umbels open to ± dense, not spheric; bractlets generally evident
5. Plant not woody; corolla ± purple; leaf simple to 2-pinnately dissected or compound, lobes, segments, or leaflets wider than linear
6. Bracts 0; leaf round-reniform, ternate ..... C. gilmanii
6' Bracts conspicuous, scarious, veiny; leaf oblong-ovate, 1–2-pinnate or -ternate
7. Bracts and bractlets ± green or ± purple, with many green or purple veins; pedicels < 1 mm ..... C. multinervatus
7' Bracts and bractlets white, with 1–5 green or white veins; pedicels 3–8 mm ..... C. purpurascens
5' Plant woody at base; corolla ± yellow or white; leaf finely dissected, segments generally ± linear
8. Leaf finely hairy; corolla white; umbels ± dense ..... C. aboriginum
8' Leaf glabrous; corolla ± yellow; umbels open
9. Rays generally unequal; calyx lobes persistent; bractlets generally < mature pedicels ..... C. terebinthinus
10. Leaf blade length ± = width; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. californicus
10' Leaf blade length >> width; c East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. petraeus
9' Rays ± equal; calyx lobes 0; bractlets > mature pedicels ..... C. panamintensis
11. Leaf segments not crowded, 3–20 mm, flexible ..... var. acutifolius
11' Leaf segments ± crowded, 1–5 mm, rigid ..... var. panamintensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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