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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Justen Whittall, Scott A. Hodges & Dieter H. Wilken

Perennial herb; caudex thick, branched to not. Stem: 1–few, ascending to erect, branched to not, scapose to not, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: basal 1–3-ternate, petiole generally long; cauline 0–few, generally much reduced, deeply 3-lobed to 1–2-ternate, petiole short to ± 0; segments generally wedge-shaped to obovate, abaxially pale green to glaucous, adaxially green to gray, glabrous to glandular. Inflorescence: few-flowered raceme or flower 1, terminal; axis, pedicels glabrous to glandular; flowers generally nodding. Flower: sepals 5, petal-like, spreading [to ± reflexed]; petals 5, spurs between sepals, mouths < to > 90° to exposed filaments; pistils generally 5. Fruit: follicle, glabrous to glandular. Seed: smooth, shiny, brown to black.
± 70 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. Many species, hybrids cultivated as ornamental; natural hybrids common; recent adaptive radiation with specialized pollinations syndromes (bee, hummingbird, hawkmoth).
Unabridged etymology: (Perhaps Latin: eagle, from spurs, or water-drawer, from habitats)
Unabridged references: [Munz 1946 Gentes Herb 7:1–150]

Key to Aquilegia

1. Flower spreading to erect; spurs generally > 25 mm; sepals generally cream to yellow or pink ..... A. pubescens

1' Flower nodding; spurs generally < 25 mm; sepals red

2. Petal blade 0, mouth elliptic to triangular, > 90° to exposed filaments; plant densely glandular; fruit beak 12–20 mm; generally serpentine seeps ..... A. eximia

2' Petal blade 1–8 mm, mouth ± round, <= 90° to exposed filaments; plant generally glabrous, glaucous at least proximally; fruit beak 9–12 mm; non-serpentine

3. Leaflets of basal, lower cauline leaves green adaxially; basal leaf generally 2-ternate; plant not of desert seeps; California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, South Coast, Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province ..... A. formosa

3' Leaflets of basal, lower cauline leaves gray-green adaxially; basal leaf generally 3-ternate; plant of desert seeps, elsewhere; White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains ..... A. shockleyi


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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