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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb from caudex, rhizome, or tuber. Leaf: basal, generally many, simple to compound, generally petioled; blade or leaflets lobed to dissected or not, margins entire or toothed; in flower or fruit withered or not. Inflorescence: terminal, flowers 1 or 2–7 in cymes; peduncle erect; pedicel elongated in fruit; involucre bracts sessile or stalked, generally in 1–2 whorls of 2–5, simple to compound, ± like leaves or leaflets in size, shape. Flower: receptacle elongated in fruit; sepals 5–10, petal-like; petals generally 0; stamens 10–200; pistils many, styles persistent as beaks. Fruit: achene.
± 150 species: arctic, temperate worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental. (Greek: flower shaken by wind) [Dutton et al. 1997 FNANM 3:139–155] Species with long, plumose styles sometimes placed in Pulsatilla.
Unabridged references: [Hoot et al. 1994 Syst Bot 19:169–200]
1. Fruit beak (18)20–40(50) mm, long-shaggy-hairy, plumose; sepals 10–17(19) mm wide ..... A. occidentalis
1' Fruit beak <= 6 mm, glabrous to puberulent, not plumose; sepals generally 3.5–15(20) mm wide
2. Leaves generally > 1; leaves, involucre bracts simple or 1–2-ternate, lobed to dissected; plant from tuber or caudex; fruit body densely woolly or silky; sepals <= 10 mm wide
3. Fruit aggregate ellipsoid, (15)20–30 mm; fruit beak soft-puberulent; e Desert Mountains ..... A. tuberosa
3' Fruit aggregate generally spheric, 10–20 mm; fruit beak glabrous; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
4. Stamens 80–100; leaf ultimate segments 1–1.5(2) mm wide; involucre bracts ± 2-ternate, in 1 whorl; sepals white to ± blue ..... A. drummondii var. drummondii
4' Stamens 50–80; leaf ultimate segments (1.5)2–3.5(5) mm wide; involucre bracts ± 1-ternate, in (1)2 whorls; sepals green to yellow, blue, purple, or red (white) ..... A. multifida var. multifida
2' Leaves 0–2; leaves, involucre bracts simple or 1-ternate, crenate or serrate to lobed, not dissected; plant from rhizome; fruit body glabrous to puberulent or rough-hairy; sepals 1.5–15(20) mm wide
5. Involucre bracts generally simple, ± sessile; sepals generally 5, (8)10–15(20) mm wide, white; stamens >= 100 ..... A. deltoidea
5' Involucre bracts generally 1-ternate, stalked; sepals generally 5–7, generally 1.5–8 mm wide, blue to purple, ± red, pink, or white; stamens <=75
6. Fruit beak (0.5)1–1.5 mm; sepals 10–20 mm; stamens 30–60(75) ..... A. oregana var. oregana
6' Fruit beak ± 0.5–1 mm; sepals 3.5–15 mm; stamens <= 40
7. Sepals 7–15 mm, 4–8 mm wide; pedicel generally (0.5)3–10 cm in fruit; fruit beak 0.6–1 mm; stamens 25–40 ..... A. grayi
7' Sepals 3.5–8(10) mm, 1.5–3(3.5) mm wide; pedicel 1–3(4) cm in fruit; fruit beak ± 0.5 mm; stamens 10–30(35) ..... A. lyallii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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