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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous.
Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several yrs.
Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd yr, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm.
Seed: coat hard, woody or not.
94 species: n hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 yrs) cultivated in Eur for over 6000 yrs for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, n ChI.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
1. Lf-bundle sheath deciduous or mostly so; seed cone scale tip generally without prickle
2. Lvs generally < 5 per bundle
3. Lvs (3)4(5) per bundle ..... P. quadrifolia
3' Lvs generally 1–2 per bundle
4. Lvs generally 2 per bundle ..... P. edulis
4' Lvs generally 1 per bundle ..... P. monophylla
2' Lvs 5 per bundle
5. Seed cone generally closed, generally torn apart by animals, generally not on ground intact; seed wings persistent on scale ..... P. albicaulis
5' Seed cone opening and releasing seeds, not torn apart by animals, generally on ground intact (except for released seeds); seed wings persistent on scale or not
6. Seed cone scale thinnest at tip, without prickle
7. Seed cone stalk < 2 cm; seed wings narrow, generally persistent on scale ..... P. flexilis
7' Seed cone stalk > 2 cm; seed wings wide, deciduous from scale
8. Seed cone 20–60 cm; mature bark dark purple-brown ..... P. lambertiana
8' Seed cone 9–25 cm; mature bark dark gray to red-brown ..... P. monticola
6' Seed cone scale thickest at tip, with prickle
9. Scale knob tip prickle 1–6 mm; trunks often many ..... P. longaeva
9' Scale knob tip prickle <= 1 mm; trunks generally 1 ..... P. balfouriana
10. Lf ± yellow-green; bark red-brown, in ± square plates; s SNH ..... subsp. austrina
10' Lf ± blue-green; bark gray-brown, in ± narrow ridges; KR, NCoRH ..... subsp. balfouriana
1' Lf-bundle sheath persistent; seed cone scale tip with prickle, at least when immature (sometimes 0 at maturity)
11. Lvs 2 per bundle
12. Seed cone 5–9.7 cm; leaf generally 5–15 cm ..... P. muricata
12' Seed cone 2–6 cm; leaf 2.5–8.6 cm ..... P. contorta
13. Seed cone generally not opening, asymmetric ..... subsp. bolanderi
13' Seed cone opening, asymmetric or ± symmetric
14. Seed cone on stem many yrs after opening ..... subsp. contorta
14' Seed cone deciduous soon after opening ..... subsp. murrayana
11' Lvs 3 or 5 per bundle (2–5 in Pinus ponderosa)
15. Lvs 5 per bundle, often 3 in young trees ..... P. torreyana
16. Crown ± closed, generally wider than long, most open seed cones with combined length and width > 27 cm, width > length; light colored scale tips generally prominent; n ChI (Santa Rosa Island) ..... subsp. insularis
16' Crown ± open, generally longer than wide, most open seed cones with combined length and width < 27 cm, width <= length; light colored scale tips generally not prominent; s SCo (mostly Torrey Pines State Reserve) ..... subsp. torreyana
15' Lvs 3 per bundle (rarely 2 in Pinus ponderosa)
17. Proximal seed cone scale tips recurved, elongated 1.5–7 cm
18. Seed cone ± yellow; seed < wing; leaf rigid, not drooping ..... P. coulteri
18' Seed cone ± brown; seed > wing; leaf flexible, generally drooping ..... P. sabiniana
17' Proximal seed cone scale tips rarely recurved, then elongated < 3 cm
19. Seed cones on stems many yrs
20. Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob angled, > 2 cm ..... P. attenuata
20' Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob rounded, < 2 cm ..... P. radiata
19' Seed cones deciduous except stalks, proximal scales persistent
21. Bark crevices with definite odor of vanilla/banana, especially on warm days; scales of open seed cone ± crowded, generally not darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-blue-green, glaucous; bark outer scales with ± pink inner surfaces; vegetative buds not resinous; seed cone generally 13–25 cm, scales each with a generally incurved prickle, bracts with white fringing hairs ..... P. jeffreyi
21' Bark crevices generally lacking odor of vanilla/banana; scales of open seed cone well separated to very crowded, generally darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-green, shiny deep green, or light green; bark outer scales with ± yellow inner surfaces; vegetative buds resinous; seed cone 7–15(18) cm, scales each with a straight or outcurved prickle, bracts with light brown fringing hairs ..... P. ponderosa
22. Mature bark light to medium yellow-brown; maturing closed cones green; open mature cones generally 8–18 cm, scales abaxially black ..... var. pacifica
22' Mature bark generally medium to dark red- or yellow-brown; maturing closed cones ± green to dark purple; open mature cones 6–12(15) cm, scales abaxially brown with black striations or black
23. Immature seed cones green-brown to dark purple; mature open cones ovate to ± conic, 7–12(15) cm, scales abaxially generally black, occasionally brown with black striations; CaRH, n SNH, MP ..... var. ponderosa
23' Immature seed cones dark red-purple; mature open cones ovate or generally conic, generally 6–11 cm, scales abaxially generally brown with black striations, occasionally black; CaRH, n SNH, Wrn ..... var. washoensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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