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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette

Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not.
94 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in San Francisco Bay Area, northern Channel Islands.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).

Key to Pinus

1. Lf-bundle sheath deciduous or mostly so; seed cone scale tip generally without prickle

2. Leaves generally < 5 per bundle

3. Leaves (3)4(5) per bundle ..... P. quadrifolia

3' Leaves generally 1–2 per bundle

4. Leaves generally 2 per bundle ..... P. edulis

4' Leaves generally 1 per bundle ..... P. monophylla

2' Leaves 5 per bundle

5. Seed cone generally closed, generally torn apart by animals, generally not on ground intact; seed wings persistent on scale ..... P. albicaulis

5' Seed cone opening and releasing seeds, not torn apart by animals, generally on ground intact (except for released seeds); seed wings persistent on scale or not

6. Seed cone scale thinnest at tip, without prickle

7. Seed cone stalk < 2 cm; seed wings narrow, generally persistent on scale ..... P. flexilis

7' Seed cone stalk > 2 cm; seed wings wide, deciduous from scale

8. Seed cone 20–60 cm; mature bark dark purple-brown ..... P. lambertiana

8' Seed cone 9–25 cm; mature bark dark gray to red-brown ..... P. monticola

6' Seed cone scale thickest at tip, with prickle

9. Scale knob tip prickle 1–6 mm; trunks often many ..... P. longaeva

9' Scale knob tip prickle <= 1 mm; trunks generally 1 ..... P. balfouriana

10. Leaf ± yellow-green; bark red-brown, in ± square plates; s High Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. austrina

10' Leaf ± blue-green; bark gray-brown, in ± narrow ridges; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. balfouriana

1' Lf-bundle sheath persistent; seed cone scale tip with prickle, at least when immature (sometimes 0 at maturity)

11. Leaves 2 per bundle

12. Seed cone 5–9.7 cm; leaf generally 5–15 cm ..... P. muricata

12' Seed cone 2–6 cm; leaf 2.5–8.6 cm ..... P. contorta

13. Seed cone generally not opening, asymmetric ..... subsp. bolanderi

13' Seed cone opening, asymmetric or ± symmetric

14. Seed cone on stem many years after opening ..... subsp. contorta

14' Seed cone deciduous soon after opening ..... subsp. murrayana

11' Leaves 3 or 5 per bundle (2–5 in Pinus ponderosa)

15. Leaves 5 per bundle, often 3 in young trees ..... P. torreyana

16. Crown ± closed, generally wider than long, most open seed cones with combined length and width > 27 cm, width > length; light colored scale tips generally prominent; n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island) ..... subsp. insularis

16' Crown ± open, generally longer than wide, most open seed cones with combined length and width < 27 cm, width <= length; light colored scale tips generally not prominent; s South Coast (mostly Torrey Pines State Reserve) ..... subsp. torreyana

15' Leaves 3 per bundle (rarely 2 in Pinus ponderosa)

17. Proximal seed cone scale tips recurved, elongated 1.5–7 cm

18. Seed cone ± yellow; seed < wing; leaf rigid, not drooping ..... P. coulteri

18' Seed cone ± brown; seed > wing; leaf flexible, generally drooping ..... P. sabiniana

17' Proximal seed cone scale tips rarely recurved, then elongated < 3 cm

19. Seed cones on stems many years

20. Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob angled, > 2 cm ..... P. attenuata

20' Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob rounded, < 2 cm ..... P. radiata

19' Seed cones deciduous except stalks, proximal scales persistent

21. Bark crevices with definite odor of vanilla/banana, especially on warm days; scales of open seed cone ± crowded, generally not darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-blue-green, glaucous; bark outer scales with ± pink inner surfaces; vegetative buds not resinous; seed cone generally 13–25 cm, scales each with a generally incurved prickle, bracts with white fringing hairs ..... P. jeffreyi

21' Bark crevices generally lacking odor of vanilla/banana; scales of open seed cone well separated to very crowded, generally darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-green, shiny deep green, or light green; bark outer scales with ± yellow inner surfaces; vegetative buds resinous; seed cone 7–15(18) cm, scales each with a straight or outcurved prickle, bracts with light brown fringing hairs ..... P. ponderosa

22. Mature bark light to medium yellow-brown; maturing closed cones green; open mature cones generally 8–18 cm, scales abaxially black ..... var. pacifica

22' Mature bark generally medium to dark red- or yellow-brown; maturing closed cones ± green to dark purple; open mature cones 6–12(15) cm, scales abaxially brown with black striations or black

23. Immature seed cones green-brown to dark purple; mature open cones ovate to ± conic, 7–12(15) cm, scales abaxially generally black, occasionally brown with black striations; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. ponderosa

23' Immature seed cones dark red-purple; mature open cones ovate or generally conic, generally 6–11 cm, scales abaxially generally brown with black striations, occasionally black; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains ..... var. washoensis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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