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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, ± round to elliptic; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous. Leaf: 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally ± flat; adaxially with 2 ± faint, longitudinal, ± white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 ± white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, ± free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm.
39 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: silver fir) [Xiang et al. 2009 Taxon 58:141–152]
Unabridged references: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]

Key to Abies

1. Leaf tip spine-like; bud 1–2.5 cm; seed cone bract exserted 1.5–4.5 cm ..... A. bracteata

1' Leaf tip notched, blunt, or acute; bud < 1 cm; seed cone bract included or exserted < 1 cm

2. Leaf adaxially without ± white bands

3. Twig leaves 2-ranked, alternating shorter and longer on each side ..... A. grandis

3' Twig leaves not 2-ranked, often crowded on upper side, ± equal throughout

4. Leaf < 3 cm, dark green; bark ash-gray; twig ± hairy; Klamath Ranges ..... A. amabilis

4' Leaf 3–9 cm, blue-green; bark white-gray in youth, gray-brown to ± black in age; twig glabrous; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... A. concolor

2' Leaf adaxially with ± white bands

5. Leaf ± flat; seed cone bract included ..... A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa

5' Leaf ± 3- or 4-angled (± flat on coneless twigs or not); seed cone bract included or exserted

6. Seed cone bracts included ..... A. magnifica var. magnifica

6' Seed cone bracts exserted

7. Seed cone bract awns < bract body ..... A. magnifica var. shastensis

7' Seed cone bract awns > bract body ..... A. procera


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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