Integrative Biology 200B     Spring 1999

"PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS:  ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION"

Those references preceded by ** are required. Those preceded by * are highly suggested.  The others are suggested, too but we realize you can only read so much.

Feb. 9 & 11.  BIOGEOGRAPHY:

Alroy, J. 1995. Continuous track analysis: a new phylogentic and biogeographic method. Syt. Biol. 44(2):152-178.

Avise, J. C., J. Arnold, R. M. Ball, E. Bermingham, T. Lamb, J. E. Neigel, C. A. Reeb and N. C. Saunders. 1987. Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 18:489-522.

Baldwin, B. G., D. W. Kyhos and J. Dvorak. 1990. Chloroplast DNA evolution and adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae-Madiinae). Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 77:96-109.

Baldwin, B. G. and R. H. Robichaux. 1995. Historical biogeography and ecology of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae): New molecular phylogenetic perspectives.Pp. 259-287. In Wagner, W. L. and V. Funk (Eds.) Hawaiian Biogeography, Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Baldwin, B. G., and Sanderson, M. J. (1998). žAge and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae).Ó Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(16), 9402-9406.

Ball, I.R. 1976. Nature and formulation of biogeographical hypotheses. Syst. Zool.
 24:407-430.

**Brooks, D.R., & D. McLennan. 1991. Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior. University of Chicago Press. pp 206-248

*Brooks, D. R. 1990. Parsimony analyisis in historical biogeography and coevolution: Methodological and theoretical update. Syst. Zool. 39:14-30.

Carpenter, J M.  Phylogeny and biogeography of Polistes. Turillazzi, S. and M. J. West-Eberhard (Ed.). Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps; International Workshop, Castiglioncello, Italy, October 4-7, 1993. xiv+400p. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA. 1996. p. 18-57.

Coscaron, M D C; Morrone, J J. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Melanolestes Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, v.99, n.1, (1997): 55-59.

Cracraft, J. Cladistic analysis and vicariance biogeography. Slatkin, M. (Ed.). Exploring evolutionary biology: Readings from American Scientist. iv+305p. Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. 1995. p. 104-112.

De Meyer, M. Cladistic and biogeographic analyses of Hawaiian Pipunculidae (Diptera)revisited.  Cladistics, v.12, n.4, (1996): 291-303.

Emerson, B C; Wallis, G P; Patrick, B H.  Biogeographic area relationships in southern New Zealand: A cladistic analysis of Lepidoptera distributions. Journal of Biogeography, v.24, n.1, (1997): 89-99.

Enghoff, H.  Historical biogeography of the Holarctic: Area relationships, ancestral areas, and dispersal of non-marine animals. Cladistics, v.11, n.3, (1995): 223-263.

Evans, B J; Morales, J C; Picker, M D; Kelley, D B; Melnick, D J. Comparative molecular phylogeography of two Xenopus species, X. gilli and X. laevis, in the south-western Cape Province, South Africa.  Molecular Ecology, v.6, n.4, (1997): 333-343.

Grant, P. R. (1998). žRadiations, communities, and biogeography.Ó Evolution on islands, P. R. Grant, ed., Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA; Oxford, England, UK, 196-209.

Gray, J. and A.J. Boucot (eds.). 1979. Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the
 Changing Environment, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon.

Kluge, A. G. 1988. Parsimony in vicariance biogeography: a quantitative method and a greater Antillean example. Syst. Zool. 37:315-328.

Linder, H P; Crisp, M D. Nothofagus and Pacific biogeography. Cladistics, v.11, n.1, (1995): 5-32.

Lydeard, C. M.C. Wooten, and A. Meyer. 1995. Molecules, morphology and area cladeograms: a cladistic and biogeographic analysis of Gambusia (Teleostei: Poecilliiae) Syst. Biol. 44:221-236.

Minaka, N. Vicariance in historical biogeography: Analytical problems in reconstructing area cladograms.  Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica, v.44, n.2, (1993): 151-184. Language:  Japanese.

Morrone J.J. and Carpenter, J.M. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography - an comparison of component analysis, brooks parsimony analysis, and three area statements. Cladistics 10(2):99-153.

Nelson, G. 1985. A decade of challenge the future of biogeography. Earth Sciences History 4(2):187-196.

Nelson, G. and N. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and biogeography. Cladistics and vicariance. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.

Nelson, G. and Rosen, D.E. (eds.). 1981. Vicariance biogeography: a critique. ColumbiaUniversity Press, New York. 593 pp.

Nelson, G; Ladiges, P Y. Paralogy in cladistic biogeography and analysis of paralogy-freesubtrees.  American Museum Novitates, n.3167, (1996): 1-58.

Page, R. D. M. 1989. Comments on component-compatibility in historical biogeography.Cladistics 5: 167-182.

Page, R. D. M. 1994. Maps between trees and cladistic analysis of historical associations among genes, organisms, and areas. Syst. Biol. 43: 58-77.

Page, R.D.M. 1994. Parallel phylogenies - reconstructing the history of host-parasite assemblages. Cladistics 10(2): 155-173

Pielou, E. C. 1979. Biogeography. John Wiley and Sons; New York.

Rosen, D. E. 1975. A vicariance model of Caribbean biogeography. Syst. Zool. 24:431-464.

Rosen, D. E. 1978. Vicariant patterns and historical explanation in biogeography. Syst. Zool. 27: 159-188.

Rosen, D. E. 1979. Fishes from the upland and intermontane basins of Guatemala: revisionary studies and comparative geography. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 162: 267-376.

Siddall, M E. Phylogenetic covariance probability: Confidence and historical associations.
 Systematic Biology, v.45, n.1, (1996): 48-66.

Springer, V. G. 1982. Pacific plate biogeography, with special reference to shorefishes.
 Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 367:1-167.

Swenson, U. and K. Bremer. 1997. Pacific Biogeography of the Asteraceae genus Abrotanella (Senecioneae, Belnnospermatinae). Systematic Botany 22: 493-508.

Vermeij, G. J. 1978. Biogeography and adaptation. Harvard University Press; Cambridge.

Wagner, W L. Hawaiian biogeography: Evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Wagner, W. L. and V. A. Funk (Ed.). Hawaiian biogeography: Evolution on a hot spot archipelago. xvii+467p. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC, USA; London, England, UK. 1995.

Weston, P H; Crisp, M D. Cladistic biogeography of waratahs (Proteaceae:Embothrieae) and their  allies across the Pacific.  Australian Systematic Botany, v.7, n.3, (1994): 225-249.

Wiley, E. O. 1981. Phylogenetics: the theory and practice of phylogenetic systematics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Feb. 16:  SPECIES & SPECIATION

Species:

Avise, J. C. and K. Wollenberg.  1997.  Phylogenetics and the origin of species.  Proc. Nat.  Acad.  Sci., U.S.A 94: 7748-7755.

Bremer, K. and H. E. Wanntorp. 1979.  Geographic populations or biological  species in phylogeny reconstruction?  Syst. Zool.  28:220-224.

Cracraft, J. 1983.  Species concepts and speciation analysis.  Curr. Ornith. 1:159-187.

Cronquist, A. 1978.  Once again, what is a species?  Pp. 3-20 in Biosystematics in agriculture, ed. J. A. Romberger.  Montclair, New Jersey:  Allanheld & Osmun.

Davis, J. I.  1995.  Species concepts and phylogenetic analysis -- introduction.  Syst. Bot. 20: 555-559. [Introduction to a symposium -- several relevant papers here]

Donoghue, M. J. 1985.  A critique of the biological species concept and recommendations for a phylogenetic alternative.  Bryologist 88:172-181.

Ehrlich, P. R. and P. H. Raven.  1969.  Differentiation of populations. Science 165:1228-1232.

Ehrlich, P. R. and R. R. White.  1980.  Colorado Checkerspot Butterflies: isolation, neutrality, and the biospecies. Am. Nat. 115:328-341.

Eldredge, N. and J. Cracraft. 1980.  Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary  process.  New York:  Columbia Univ. Press.

Frost, D. R. and J. W. Wright. 1988.  The taxonomy of uniparental species, with special reference to parthenogenetic Cnemidophorus  (Squamata: Teiidae).  Syst. Zool. 37:200-209.

Frost D.R. and Kluge, A.G.. 1994. A consideration of epistemology in systematic biology, with special reference to species. Cladistics 10(3): 259-294

Ghiselin, M. T. 1987.  Species concepts, individuality, and objectivity. Biol. Phil. 2:127-143.

Gould, S. J.  1980.  A Quahog is a Quahog. Pages 204-213 in The Pandas Thumb. Norton.

Grant, V. 1981.  Plant speciation.  New York:  Columbia Univ. Press.

Graybeal, A.  1995.  Naming species.  Systematic Biology 44(2):237-250.

Häuser, C. L. 1987.  The debate about the biological species concept -- a review.  Z. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch. 25:241-257.

Holman, E. W. 1987.  Recognizability of sexual and asexual species of rotifers.  Syst. Zool. 36:381-386.

Hull, D. L. 1987.  Genealogical actors in ecological roles.  Biol. Phil. 2:168-184.

Levin, D. A. and H. W. Kerster.  1974.  Gene flow in seed plants. Evol. Biol. 7: 139-220.

Levin, D. A.  1979.  The nature of plant species. Science 204:381-384.

Lidén, M. and B. Oxelman. 1989. Species -- pattern or process? Taxon 38: 228-232.

Mayden, R. L.  1997.  A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem. Pages 381-424 in Species: the units of biodiversity (Claridge, M. F., H. A. Hawah and M. R. Wilson, ed.).  Chapman and Hall, London.

Mayr, E. 1970.  Populations, species, and evolution.  Cambridge,  Mass.:  Harvard Univ. Press.

Mayr, E.  1982.  The Growth of Biological Thought. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. [especially Chapter 6, on "Microtaxonomy, the science of species"]

Mayr, E.  1984.  Species concepts and their application. (reprinted) Pages 531-540 in Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (Sober, E., ed.). MIT press, Cambridge, Mass.

McKitrick, M. C. and R. M. Zink.  1988.  Species concepts in ornithology. Condor 90:1-14.

Mishler, B. D. and M. J. Donoghue.  1982.  Species concepts: a case for pluralism. Syst. Zool. 31:491-503.

Mishler, B. D.  1985.  The morphological, developmental, and phylogenetic basis of species concepts in bryophytes. Bryol. 88:207-214.

**Mishler, B. D. and R. N. Brandon.  1987.  Individuality, pluralism, and the phylogenetic species concept. Biol. Phil. 2:397-414.

Mishler, B. D. and A. F. Budd.  1990.  Species and evolution in clonal organisms -- introduction. Syst. Bot. 15:79-85.
 
Mishler, B.D. and E. Theriot.  In Press.  Monophyly, apomorphy, and phylogenetic species concepts.  Three chapters in Q.D. Wheeler & R. Meier (eds.), Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: A Debate.  Columbia University Press.

Nelson, G. J. and N. I. Platnick. 1981.  Systematics and biogeography: cladistics and vicariance.  New York:  Columbia Univ. Press.

**Nixon, K. C. and Q. D. Wheeler.  1990.  An amplification of the phylogenetic species concept. Cladistics 6:211-223.

Otte, D. and J. A. Endler (eds.).  1989.  Speciation and Its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.

Paterson, H. E. H. 1985.  The recognition concept of species.  Pp. 21-29 in Species and speciation , ed. E. S. Vrba.  Pretoria:  Transvaal Museum.

de Queiroz, K. and J. Gauthier.  1992.  Phylogenetic taxonomy. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23:449-480.

de Queiroz, K. and J. Gauthier.  1994.  Toward a phylogenetic system of nomenclature.  Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 27-31.

Ridley, M. 1989. The cladistic solution to the species problem. Biol. Phil. 4:1-16.

Rosen, D. E. 1978.  Vicariant patterns and historical explanation in biogeography.  Syst. Zool. 27:159-188.

Rosen, D. E. 1979.  Fishes from the upland and intermontane basins of Guatemala:  revisionary studies and comparative geography.  Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 162:267-376.Simpson, G. G. 1961.  Principles of animal taxonomy.  New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Schander, C. and M. Thollesson.  1995.  Phylogenetic taxonomy - some comments.  Zoologica Scripta 24(3):263-268.

Sokal, R. R. and T. J. Crovello.  1984.  The biological species concept: a critical evaluation. (reprinted) Pages 541-566 in Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (Sober, E., ed.). MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Templeton, A.R. 1989. The meaning of species and speciation: a genetic perspective. Pp. 3-27 in Speciation and its consequences, ed. D. Otte and J. A. Endler. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates.

Theriot, E.  1992.  Custers, species concepts, and morphological evolution of diatoms. Syst. Biol. 41:141-157.

Van Valen, L. M. 1976.  Ecological species, multispecies, and oaks.  Taxon 25:233-239.

Van Valen, L. M. 1982.  Integration of species:  stasis and biogeography.  Evol. Theory 6:99-112.

Vrba, E. S. (ed.).  1985.  Species and Speciation. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. [a collected work with a number of good papers]

Wiley, E. O.  1978.  The evolutionary species concept reconsidered. Syst. Zool. 27:17-26.
 

Speciation:

Altukhov, Y. P.  1982.  Biochemical population genetics and speciation. Evol. 36:1168-1181.

Avise, J. C., J. F. Shapiro, S. W. Danila, C. F. Aquadro, and R. A. Lansman. 1983. Mitochondrial DNA differentiation during the speciation process in Peromyscus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 1:38-56.

*Avise, J. C.  1994.  Molecular markers, natural history and evolution.  Chapman & Hall, New York.

Barigozzi, C. (ed.).  1982.  Mechanisms of Speciation. Liss, New York.

Barton, N. H. and B. Charlesworth.  1984.  Genetic revolutions, founder effects, and speciation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:133-164.

Budd, A. F. and B. D. Mishler.  1990.  Species and evolution in clonal organisms -- summary and discussion.  Syst. Bot. 15: 166-171.

Bush, G. L.  1975.  Modes of animal speciation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 6:339-364.

Carson, H. L. and A. R. Templeton.  1984.  Genetic revolutions in relation to speciation phenomena: the founding of new populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:97-131.

Cracraft, J.  1983.  Species concepts and speciation analysis.  Curr. Ornith. 1: 159-187.

Cracraft, J.  1989. Speciation and its ontology: the empirical  consequences of alternative species concepts for understanding patterns and processes of differentiation. Pp. 28-59 in Speciation and its consequences, ed. D. Otte and J. A. Endler. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates.

Eldredge, N. and J. Cracraft.  1980.  Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary process.  Columbia Univ. Press, New York.

Endler, J. A.  1977.  Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Ehrlich, P. R. and P. H. Raven.  1969.  Differentiation of populations.  Science 165: 1228-1232.

Futuyma, D. J.  1987.  On the role of species in anagenesis. Amer. Nat. 130:465-473.

Giddings, L. V., K. Y. Kaneshiro and W. W. Anderson (ed.). 1989.  Genetics, Speciation, and the Founder Principle. Oxford University Press, New York.

Grant, V.  1981.  Plant Speciation. Columbia University Press, New York.

Hull, D. L.  1980.  Individuality and selection.  Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 311-332.

Liou, L. W. and T. D. Price.  1994.  Speciation by reinforcement of premating isolation.  Evol. 48: 1451-1459.

**Lynch, J.D. 1989. The gauge of speciation: on the frequencies of modes of speciation. Pp. 527-553 in Speciation and its consequences, ed. D. Otte and J. A. Endler. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates.

Mayr, E.  1982.  Speciation and macroevolution. Evol. 36:1119-1132.

Mishler, B. D.  1985.  The morphological, developmental, and phylogenetic basis of species concepts in bryophytes.  Bryol. 88: 207-214.

*Mishler, B. D.  1990.  Reproductive biology and species distinctions in the moss genus Tortula, as represented in Mexico.  Syst. Bot. 15: 86-97.

Mishler, B. D. and A. F. Budd.  1990.  Species and evolution in clonal organisms -- introduction.  Syst. Bot. 15: 79-85.

Moore, W. S. and D. B. Buchanan.  1985.  Stability of the Northern Flicker hybrid zone in historical time: implications for adaptive speciation theory. Evol. 39:135-151.

Otte, D. and J. A. Endler (ed.).  1989.  Speciation and Its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.

Rice, W. R. and E. E. Hostert.  1993.  Laboratory experiments on speciation: what have we learned in forty years?  Evol. 47: 1637-1653.

Templeton, A. R.  1981.  Mechanisms of speciation - a population genetic approach. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12:23-48.

*Theriot, E.  1992.  Custers, species concepts, and morphological evolution of diatoms.  Syst. Biol. 41: 141-157.

Thorpe, R. S.  1984.  Primary and secondary transition zones in speciation and population differentiation: a phylogenetic analysis of range expansion.  Evol. 38: 233-243.

Vrba, E. S. (ed.).  1985.  Species and Speciation.  Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

White, M. J. D.  1978.  Modes of Speciation. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco. [also has a gigantic bibliography]
 
 

Feb. 18th.  RETICULATION AND PHYLOGENETICS

Arnold, M. L., C. M. Buckner and J. J. Robinson.  1991.  Pollen-mediated introgression and hybrid speciation in Louisiana irises.  Proc. Nat.  Acad.  Sci., U.S.A 88: 1398-1402.

Arnold, M. L., J. J. Robinson, C. M. Buckner and B. D. Bennet.  1992.  Pollen dispersal and interspecific gene flow in Louisiana irises.  Heredity 68: 399-404.

Avise, J. C.  1989.  Gene trees and organismal histories: a phylogenetic approach to population biology.  Evol. 43: 1192-1208.

Avise, J. C. and R. M. Ball.  1990.  Principles of geneological concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy.  Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7: 45-67.

*Baum, D.  1992.  Phylogenetic species concepts.  Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 1-2.

Baum, D. A., and K. L. Shaw. 1995. Genealogical perspectives on the species problem. Pages 289-303 in Experimental and molecular approaches to plant biosystematics. Monographs in systematics, Volume 53 (P. C. Hoch and A. G., Stevenson, eds.) Missouri Botanical Garden, St, Louis.

Crandall, K. A.  1994.  Intraspecific cladogram estimation: accuracy at higher levels of divergence.  Syst. Biol. 43: 222-235.

Doyle, J. J. 1992. Gene trees and species trees:  Molecular systematics as one-character taxomony. Syst. Bot. 17: 144-163.

Funk, V. A.  1985.  Phylogenetic patterns and hybridization.  Ann.  Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 681-715.

Goodman, M., J. Czelusniak, G. W. Moore, A. E. Romero-Herrera, and G. Matsuda. 1979. Fitting the gene lineage into its species lineage, a parsimony strategy illustrated by cladograms constructed from globin sequences. Syst. Zool. 28: 132-163.

Heiser, C. B.  1973.  Introgression re-examined.  Bot. Rev. 39: 347-366.

*Hudson, R. R.  1991.  Gene genealogies and the coalescent process.  Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7: 1-44.

Hudson, R. R., M. Slatkin and W. P. Maddison.  1992.  Estimation of levels of gene flow from DNA sequence data.  Genetics 132: 583-589.

Kidwell, M. G. 1993. Lateral transfer in natural populations of eukaryotes. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27: 235-256.

Maddison, W. P.  1997.  Gene trees in species trees.  Syst. Biol. 46: 523-536.

McDade, L.  1990.  Hybrids and phylogenetic systematics. I. Patterns of character expression in hybrids and their implications for cladistic analysis.  Evol. 44: 1685-1700.

**McDade, L. A.  1992.  Hybrids and phylogenetic systematics II.  The impact of hybrids on cladistic analysis.  Evol. 46: 1329-1346.

McDade, L. A.  1995.  Hybridization and phylogenetics. in Experimental and molecular approaches to plant biosystematics (Hoch, P. C. and A. G. Stephenson, ed.).  Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

McDade, L A. 1997. Hybrids and phylogenetic systematics III. Comparison with distance methods. Systematic Botany, v.22, n.4, (1997): 669-683.

Mountain, J. L., J. M. Hebert, S. Bhattacharyya, P. A. Underhill, C. Ottolenghi, M. Gadgil and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza.  1995.  Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity.  Am. J. Hum. Genet. 56: 979-992.

Nason, J. D., N. C. Ellstrand and M. I. Arnold.  1992.  Patterns of hybridization and introgression in populations of oaks, manzanitas, and irises.  Am. J. Bot. 79: 101-111.

Rieseberg, L. H.  1991.  Homoploid reticulate evolution in Helianthus (Asteraceae): evidence from ribosomal genes.  Amer. J. Bot 78: 1218-1237.

Rieseberg, L. H., R. Carter and S. Zona.  1990.  Molecular tests of the hypothesized hybrid origin of two diploid Helianthus  species (Asteraceae).  Evol. 44: 1498-1511.

Schlefer, E. K., M. A. Romano, S. I. Guttman and S. B. Ruth.  1986.  Effects of twenty years of hybridization in a disturbed habitat on Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa.  J. of Herpetology 20: 210-221.

Skala,  Z. and Zrzavy J. 1994.  Phylogenetic reticulations and cladistics - discussion of methodological concepts.  Cladistics 10(3): 305-313.

Slatkin, M. and W. Maddison.  1989.  A cladistic measure of gene flow inferred from the phylogenies of alleles.  Genetics 123: 603-613.

Slatkin, M. and W. Maddison.  1990.  Detecting isolation by distance using phylogenies of genes.  Genetics 126: 249-260.

Vrana, P. and W. Wheeler.  1992.  Individual organisms as terminal entities: laying the species problem to rest.  Cladistics 8: 67-72.

Wagner, W. H.  1983.  Reticulistics: the recognition of hybrids and their role in cladistics and classification. Pages 63-79 in Advances in Cladistics, Volume 2 (Platnick, N. I. and V. A. Funk, ed.).  Columbia University Press, New York.

Woodruff, D. S. and S. J. Gould.  1987.  Fifty years of interspecific hybridization: genetics and morphometrics of a controlled experiment on the land snail Cerion in the Florida Keys.  Evol. 41: 1022-1043.
 
 

Feb 23rd. COEVOLUTION:

Brandon, R. N. 1990. Adaptation and Environment. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Brooks, D. R. 1981. HennigŪs parasitoligical method: A proposed solution. Syst. Zool. 30: 229-249.

Brooks, D. R. 1990. Parsimony analyisis in historical biogeography and coevolution: Methodological and theoretical update. Syst. Zool. 39: 14-30.

**Brooks, D.R., & D. McLennan. 1991. Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior. University of Chicago Press.  pp 206-248

Coddington, J. 1988. Cladistic tests of adaptational hypotheses. Cladistics 4:3-22.

de Queiroz, K. 1996. Including the characters of interest during tree reconstruction and the problems of circularity and bias in studies of character evolution. Am. Nat. 148: 700-708.

Dobson, F.S. 1985. The use of phylogeny in behavior and ecology. Evolution 39:1384-1388.

Donoghue, M.J. 1989. Phylogenies and analysis of evolutionary sequences, with examples from seed plants. Evolution 43:1137-1156.

Eggleton, P. and R. I. Vane-Wright (ed.). 1994. Phylogenetics and Ecology. Academic Press, London.

Friday, A. 1987. Models of evolutionary change and the estimation of evolutionary trees. OxfordSurveys Evol. Biol. 4:61-88.

Frumhoff, P. C. and H. K. Reeve. 1994. Using phylogenies to test hypotheses of adaptation: a critique of some current approaches. Evol. 48: 172-180.

Funk, V.A. and D.R. Brooks. 1990. Phylogenetic systematics as the basis of comparative biology. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Garland, T., P. H. Harvey and A. R. Ives. 1992. Procedures for the analysis of comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Syst. Biol. 41: 18-32.

Grafen, A. 1989. The phylogenetic regression. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 326:119-156.

Hansen, T. F. and E. P. Martins. 1996. Translating between micorevolutionary process and macroevolutionary patterns: the correlation structure of interspecific data. Evol. 50: 1404-1417.

Harvey, P.H. and M.D. Pagel. 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press.

Huelsenbeck, J P; Rannala, B; Yang, Z. 1997. Statistical tests of host-parasite cospeciation. Evolution, v.51, n.2, (1997): 410-419.

Huey, R.B. and A.F. Bennett. 1987. Phylogenetic studies of co-adaptation: preferred temperature versus optimal performance temperatures of lizards. Evolution 41: 1098-115.

Huey, R.B. 1987. Phylogeny, history, and the comparative method. Pp. 76-101 in Feder, M.E., A.F. Bennett, W.W. Burggren, R.B. Huey (eds). New Directions in Ecological Physiology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Losos, J. B. 1996. Phylogenies and comparative biology, Stage II: Testing causal hypotheses derived from phylogenies with data from extant taxa. Syst. Biol. 45: 259-260. [Maddison, W.P. 1990. A method for testing the correlated evolution of two binary characters: are gains and losses concentrated on certain branches of a phylogenetic tree? Evolution 44: 539-557.

Martins, E. P. 1996. Phylogenies, spatial autoregression, and the comparative method: a computer simulation test. Evol. 50: 1750-1765.

Martins, E.P. and T. Garland, Jr. 1991. Phylogenetic analyses of the correlated evolution of continuous characters: a simulation study. Evolution 45: 534-557.

Miles, D. B. and A. E. Dunham. 1993. Historical perspectives in ecology and evolutionary biology: the use of phylogenetic comparative analyses. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24: 587-619.

Mishler, B.D. 1988. Reproductive ecology of bryophytes. Pp. 285-306 in J. Lovett Doust and L. Lovett Doust (eds.), Plant Reproductive Ecology. Oxford University Press.

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