"PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS: ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION"
1. (25 pts.) Briefly describe the following concepts:
a. center of origin hypothesis
b. vicariance biogeography
c. concentrated change test
d. Brook's parsimony
e. monophyletic species
2. (10 pts.) In which one of the following cases
is the maximum parsimony method most likely to be inconsistent (i.e.,
not converging on the correct tree as more data are added). Why?
What properties of data make the problem worse?
3. (20 pts.) Assume the correctness of the tree below, consider
the following functional characteristics:
|TAXON:||leaves:||aphid predation:||habitat:||presence of toxic chemical:|
Which of the following adaptive scenarios are supported by these data? Which can be rejected? Give your reasons.
a. Hairy leaves evolved to deter aphid predation.
b. Hairy leaves evolved to insulate leaves in desert environments.
c. The toxic chemical evolved to deter aphid predation.
d. Smooth leaves evolved to gather more light in shady forest
4. (20 points) Briefly contrast the following pairs of terms (Use diagrams if they help):
Strict consensus trees vs. majority-rule consensus trees
transformational vs. taxic homology
additive binary recoding vs. non-additive binary recoding
replicator vs. interactor
neoteny vs. progenesis
5. (25 pts.) What sort of comparative method or approach would you apply to the following evolutionary questions (e.g., what kind of data would you require, how would you generate a null hypothesis, how would you judge statistical significance?):
a. (4 pts.) Has a particular clade of parasitic plants closely co-evolved
with its clade of host plants?
b. (4 pts.) Two lineages have merged, producing a new lineage
(e.g., "speciation through allopolyploidy")
c. (4 pts.) Is molecular evolutionary change concentrated in speciation
d. (4 pts.) Copious nectar production is an adaptation for hummingbird
pollination in flowering plants.?
e. (4 pts.) There is trend towards increasing body size within
lineages of mammals (Cope's Rule).